Alexandria C. Brown, Matthew D. Cahn’13, Sara Choi’13, and Ethan D. Clotfelter

2016. Environmental Biology of Fishes 99: 439-449. 10.1007/s10641-016-0485-x


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Dietary 2.jpg Carotenoids are important for immune defense. Carotenoid limitation is frequently cited as physiologically important, but few studies have tested this in the field. 


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We found that dietary carotenoids facilitated recovery from bacterial infection in convict cichlid fish in the laboratory, but that field populations were not limited by access to carotenoids.