Amherst College Environmental Studies for 2013-14
120 The Resilient (?) Earth: An Introduction to Environmental Studies
Life has existed on Earth for nearly four billion years, shaped by massive extinction events. In the short span of the last 10,000 years, humans have become important agents in shaping global environmental change. The question this course considers is straightforward: Have humans been modifying the environment in ways that will, in the not distant future, cause another worldwide extinction event? There are no simple, much less uncontested, answers to this question. We will have to consider the ways we have altered habitats and ecosystem processes. We will also consider the economic consequences of disturbed ecosystems and assess contemporary policy responses and solutions. One lecture and one discussion section per week.
Limited to 50 students. Spring semester. Professors Dizard and R. Levin.2013-14: Offered in Spring 2014
Other years: Offered in Spring 2008, Spring 2009, Spring 2010, Spring 2011, Spring 2012, Spring 2013
(Offered as BIOL 230 and ENST 210.) A study of the relationships of plants and animals (including humans) to each other and to their environment. We'll start by considering the decisions an individual makes in its daily life concerning its use of resources, such as what to eat and where to live, and whether to defend such resources. We'll then move on to populations of individuals, and investigate species population growth, limits to population growth, and why some species are so successful as to become pests whereas others are on the road to extinction. The next level will address communities, and how interactions among populations, such as competition, predation, parasitism, and mutualism, affect the organization and diversity of species within communities. The final stage of the course will focus on ecosystems, and the effects of humans and other organisms on population, community, and global stability. Three hours of lecture per week.
Requisite: BIOL 181 or ENST 120 or equivalent. Not open to first-year students. Limited to 65 students. Fall semester. Professor Temeles.2013-14: Offered in Fall 2013
Other years: Offered in Fall 2007, Fall 2008, Fall 2009, Fall 2010, Spring 2012, Fall 2012
220 Environmental Issues of the Nineteenth Century
(Offered as HIST 104 [C] and ENST 220.) This course considers the ways that people in various parts of the world thought about and acted upon nature during the nineteenth century. We look historically at issues that continue to have relevance today, including: invasive species, deforestation, soil-nitrogen availability, water use, desertification, and air pollution. Themes include: the relationship of nineteenth-century colonialism and environmental degradation, gender and environmental change, the racial dimensions of ecological issues, and the spatial aspects of human interactions with nature. We will take at least one field trip. In addition, we will watch three films that approach nineteenth-century environmental issues from different vantage points. Two class meetings per week.
Spring semester. Professor Melillo.2013-14: Offered in Spring 2014
Other years: Offered in Spring 2010, Spring 2011, Spring 2012
228 Ethics and the Environment
(Offered as PHIL 225 and ENST 228) As our impact on the environment shows itself in increasingly dramatic ways, our interaction with the environment has become an important topic of cultural and political debate. In this course we will discuss various philosophical issues that arise in such debates, including: What obligations, if any, do we have to future generations, to non-human animals, and to entire ecosystems? How should we act when we are uncertain exactly how our actions will affect the environment? How should we go about determining environmental policy? And how should we implement the environmental policies we decide upon? What is the most appropriate image of nature?
Limited to 30 students. Spring semester. Professor Emeritus Kearns.2013-14: Offered in Spring 2014
Other years: Offered in Spring 2011, Spring 2012
230 An Introduction to Economics with Environmental Applications
(Offered as ECON 111E and ENST 230.) A study of the central problem of scarcity and of the ways in which micro and macro economic systems allocate scarce resources among competing ends and apportion goods produced among people. Covers the same material as ECON 111 but with special attention to the relationship between economic activity and environmental problems and to the application of micro and macroeconomic theory tools to analyze environmental issues. A student may not receive credit for both ECON 111 and ECON 111E.
Two 80-minute and one 50-minute lecture/discussion per week. Each section is limited to 30 Amherst College students. Fall semester. Professor Sims.2013-14: Offered in Fall 2013 and Spring 2014
Other years: Offered in Fall 2007, Spring 2008, Fall 2008, Spring 2009, Fall 2009, Spring 2010, Fall 2010, Spring 2011, Fall 2011, Spring 2012, Fall 2012, Spring 2013
240 Introduction to Statistics
(Offered as MATH 130E and ENST 240.) This course is an introduction to applied statistical methods useful for the analysis of data from all fields. Brief coverage of data summary and graphical techniques will be followed by elementary probability, sampling distributions, the central limit theorem and statistical inference. Inference procedures include confidence intervals and hypothesis testing for both means and proportions, the chi-square test, simple linear regression, and a brief introduction to analysis of variance (ANOVA). This course covers the same statistical concepts as Math 130, but has an environmental focus through examples. ENST majors are strongly encouraged to take this version of the course, but it is open to all students. Four class hours per week (two will be held in the computer lab). Labs are not interchangeable between sections due to course content.
Limited to 20 students. Fall semester. Professor Wagaman.2013-14: Offered in Fall 2013 and Spring 2014
Other years: Offered in Fall 2007, Spring 2008, Fall 2008, Spring 2009, Fall 2009, Spring 2010, Fall 2010, Spring 2011, Fall 2011, Spring 2012, Fall 2012, Spring 2013
250 Environmental Politics and Policies
Contesting values of and struggles over the control of “nature” are at the heart of environmental politics, and differently positioned political, economic, and social interest groups contend for and exert power through the U.S. environmental policy-making process. In this course we will examine the politics of U.S. environmental policies, focusing on how local, regional, and national governmental institutions, non-governmental organizations and interest groups, and some publics (but not all) define environmental problems and actionable solutions. We will examine the relationship between science, policy and politics, and critically evaluate when and how "objective" scientific truths are mobilized for particular agendas--while not for others--and what "citizen science" means with respect to the U.S. environmental policy process. The class will be divided into two parts: Part I will begin with key environmental writings, and move into an overview of the institutions, actors, and concepts that shape our policy process. Part II will use a case study approach to ground our understanding of how multi-scalar interactions, plurality and uneven power relations influence how and why some issues and interests are validated in the policy process, while others are not. Case studies may include: fracking, Keystone XL pipeline, Endangered Species listings and New England cod fishery regulations.
Recommended requisite: ENST 120. Limited to 35 students. Fall semester. Pick Visiting Professor Stewart.2013-14: Offered in Fall 2013
260 Global Environmental Politics
Our global environment as a subject of concern has emerged in recent decades with the rise of scientific and media attention to the ways ecological issues like climate change and biodiversity loss matter in the daily lives of global citizens. But are all “global environmental citizens” equally responsible for and influenced by what are currently considered global environmental challenges? Why is it that some forms of nature are considered global while others are resolutely local? Are international agreements and development and conservation organizations effective at addressing the problems they intend to solve, or do they create new problems that should be accounted for in our understanding of global environmental politics? In this course, we will explore these questions and others by examining various ecological crises – climate change, deforestation, fisheries management, air and water pollution, hazardous waste disposal, among others – from critical perspectives that raise questions about key political issues, including markets, states, science, power, knowledge and social movements. This course is organized into thematic case studies, through which we will examine the production and negotiation of environmental problems by diverse social actors and institutions, including: producers and consumers, members of different socio-economic groups, actors of institutions and social movements, and citizens of diverse polities.
Limited to 35 students. Spring semester. Pick Visiting Assistant Professor Stewart.2013-14: Offered in Spring 2014
310 Conservation Social Science
The nascent field known as “conservation social science” is emerging among the major conservation organizations, like the World Wildlife Fund and The Nature Conservancy, as they realize the need to move beyond their traditional biological foundations towards the social sciences. Conservation landscapes and species of interest are embedded in complex, and often long-standing, human-environmental relationships that require the retooling of conservation science to better understand and address integrated challenges. This shift towards a “people are the solution” conservation framework requires knowledge about the ecological and social concerns and implications of conservation, which is a well-suited pursuit for interdisciplinary Environmental Studies scholars. This course prepares students to engage with this emerging field by understanding what conservation social science means in the history and trajectory of conservation, and what its foci and approaches should be in the coming years. We begin the class with a historical review of the "greening" of the World Bank and the scaling up of community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) during the 1980s, which brought "the environment" and the "community" together in development and conservation agendas. Moving forward, we review critical social science literatures that examine the social impact of conservation to refine meaningful ways forward for community-centered conservation endeavors. Key themes will include: participation, traditional ecological knowledge, ecological baselines, sustainable yields and sustainability.
Requisite: ENST 120. Limited to 35 students. Fall semester. Pick Visiting Professor Stewart.2013-14: Offered in Fall 2013
320 Knowing Nature: Examining the Politics of Environmental Knowledge
What we know and how we know about "the environment" is influenced by cultural, political, historical and social contexts. Why are some knowledges about the environment perceived to be more accurate, objective and true than others? How might our collective understandings of environmental change shift if multiple forms of knowledge--"western" scientific, indigenous, etc.--were mobilized in the production, dissemination and application of environmental knowledge? These questions are both academic and policy-oriented and sit at the interface of political ecology and science studies scholarship on nature/society and conservation and development practice: environmental management contestations and outcomes are shaped by what counts as valid knowledge. In this seminar we will examine how attention to the politics of knowledge potentially shifts the current formations of environmental studies and policy–in theory and practice--towards more integrated and democratized engagements with social and environmental change. This course is anchored in the field of political ecology, which is a sub-field of geography that is concerned with the complex power dynamics of knowing and making claims on "the environment." Our readings and discussions will examine critical perspectives on nature/society boundaries; the role of "western" scientific knowledge in the politics of conservation and development; and meaningful ways to integrate "western" scientific and indigenous environmental knowledges in environmental studies.
Requisite: ENST 120; recommended requisite: ENST 250. Limited to 35 students. Spring semester. Pick Visiting Professor Stewart.2013-14: Offered in Spring 2014
401 Wine, History and the Environment
(Offered as HIST 402 [c] and ENST 401.) Wine is as old as Western civilization. Its consumption is deeply wedded to leading religious and secular traditions around the world. Its production has transformed landscapes, ecosystems, and economies. In this course we examine how wine has shaped the history of Europe, North Africa, and the Americas. Through readings, scientific study, historical research, and class discussion, students will learn about such issues as: the environmental impact of wine; the politics of taste and class; the organization of labor; the impact of imperialism and global trade; the late nineteenth-century phylloxera outbreak that almost destroyed the European wine industry; and the emergence of claims about terroir (the notion that each wine, like each culture, is uniquely tied to a place) and how such claims are tied to regional and national identity. Through class discussion, focused research and writing workshops, and close mentoring, each student will learn about wine while designing and executing an independent research project. We will also get our hands dirty with soil sampling, learn the basics of sediment analysis in the laboratory, and have a go at fermentation. Two meetings per week.
This is a research seminar open to juniors and seniors. Priority given to history and environmental studies majors. History majors may take this course either as a research seminar or in place of HIST 301 “Writing the Past.”
Limited to 20 students. Spring semester. Professors López and Martini.2013-14: Offered in Spring 2014
Other years: Offered in Fall 2011, Fall 2012, Spring 2013
410 Seminar on Invasive Species
Invasive species are the leading cause of extinction, accounting for 39 percent of known species extinctions on Earth. A recent report noted that invasive species in the United States cause major environmental damage and losses adding up to more than $138 billion per year. There are approximately 50,000 non-native species in the U.S. and the number is increasing. But what, exactly, are invasive species, and why do they pose such tremendous problems for the conservation of biodiversity and the nations’ economies? In this course, we will explore the biological, economic, political, and social impacts of invasive species. We will start by examining the life history characteristics of invasive species which make them likely to become pests, and the features of habitats which make them most susceptible to invasion. We will then consider the consequences of invasive species for loss of native biodiversity and the disruption of ecosystem processes, as well as their global environmental and political impacts. Lastly, we will address the tougher issues of what can be done to halt or eradicate invasive species once they have become established, and how to identify and prevent the introduction of potential pest species.
Requisite: ENST 120, BIOL 230, or consent of the instructor. Limited to 14 students. Not open to first-year students. Omitted 2013-14. Professor Temeles.2013-14: Not offered
420 Seminar on Sustainable Agriculture and Human Populations.
The current world human population numbers 6.7 billion people, and the United Nations estimates that 9 billion people will live on Earth in the year 2050. Will there be enough food for this many people, and can we sustain our current lifestyle and agricultural practices in the future? These are among the questions asked in this course, which will address the biological, social, economic, and political aspects of agriculture and human population growth. Other questions to be addressed are: How have humans managed to sustain their current rate of population growth? What is the Green revolution? What are the environmental impacts of current agricultural practices? Can we feed the growing world population without destroying our environment, and if so, how? Is genetic engineering of crops a solution to world hunger?
Requisite: ENST 120 or 210 or BIOL 230 or consent of the instructor. Not open to first-year students. Limited to 14 students. Omitted 2013-14. Professor Temeles.2013-14: Not offered
425 Conservation Social Science in Practice: Methods and Realities
Building on the theoretical grounding of the Conservation Social Science course, this class will equip students with social science methods training and practice-based experience in the field of conservation social science. This practice-driven course will facilitate student interactions and engagement with a conservation organization, preferably within the Pioneer Valley area, to hone their grounded understanding of the barriers, challenges and rewards of conservation practice. A key goal for this course is to put into practice everything that was learned during the theory-focused fall course. Our readings and weekly discussions will focus on social science methods training--particularly ethnographic, participatory research methods and related ethical considerations–and select conservation social science articles. Students will be responsible for a semester-long project designed to critically define, research, and analyze an important facet of the organization’s efforts to engage with the growing conservation social science agenda.
Requisites: ENST 120 and 310. Limited to 12 students. Spring semester. Pick Visiting Professor Stewart.2013-14: Not offered
430 Seminar on Fisheries
The dependence of many countries on marine organisms for food has resulted in severe population declines in cod, bluefin tuna, swordfish, and abalone, as well as numerous other marine organisms. In this seminar we will examine the biological, sociological, political, and economic impacts of the global depletion of fisheries. Questions addressed will include: What is the scope of extinctions or potential extinctions due to over-harvesting? How have overfished species responded to harvest pressures? How are fisheries managed, and are some approaches to harvesting better than others? How do fisheries extinctions affect the societies and economies of various countries and marine ecosystems? How do cultural traditions of fishermen influence attempts to manage fisheries? Does aquaculture offer a sustainable alternative to overfishing? What is aquaculture’s impact on marine ecology? Three class hours per week.
Requisites: ENST 120 or BIOL 230/ENST 210 or consent of instructors. Not open to first-year students. Limited to 20 students. Omitted 2013-14. Professors Temeles and Dizard.2013-14: Not offered
Other years: Offered in Spring 2009, Spring 2013
432 Environmental Risks and Environmental Choices
Environmentalists are divided between those who believe there must be a fundamental change in our values and our devotion to the market and those who believe our values and the market offer the best hope for achieving sound environmental policy. If we are to achieve sustainable management of natural resources, is it necessary that we first transform ourselves and the basis of our social organization or do we already possess the tools to accomplish the task, in which case fundamental transformations might actually make things worse?
In this course, we will join this debate and closely examine the claims and counterclaims made for each position. We will examine specific issues, ranging from reducing greenhouse gases to regulating genetically modified crops, in hopes of working our way toward an assessment of policy choices.
Students will be expected to select an environmental issue (not necessarily one on which our course readings will focus) on which they will write a term paper that comes to grips with our options and that will suggest, albeit tentatively, which option(s) seem most promising.
Limited to 25 students. Not open to first-year students. Spring semester. Professor Dizard and Senior Lecturer Delaney.
2013-14: Offered in Spring 2014
490 Special Topics
Independent reading course.
Fall and spring semesters. The Department.2013-14: Offered in Fall 2013 and Spring 2014
Other years: Offered in Fall 2008, Fall 2009, Fall 2010, Fall 2011, Spring 2012, Fall 2012, Spring 2013
495 Senior Seminar
The Senior Seminar is intended to bring together majors with different course backgrounds and to facilitate original independent student research on an environmental topic. In the early weeks of the seminar, discussion will be focused on several compelling texts (e.g., Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring or Alan Weisman’s The World Without Us) which will be considered from a variety of disciplinary perspectives by members of the Environmental Studies faculty. These discussions are intended to help students initiate an independent research project which may be expanded into an honors project in the second semester. For students not electing an honors project, the seminar will offer an opportunity to integrate what they have learned in their environmental studies courses. The substance of the seminar will vary from year to year, reflecting the interests of the faculty who will be convening and participating in the seminar.
Open to seniors. Fall semester. Professors Martini and Sims.2013-14: Offered in Fall 2013
Other years: Offered in Fall 2012
498 Senior Honors
Fall semester. The Department.2013-14: Offered in Fall 2013
Other years: Offered in Fall 2008, Fall 2009, Fall 2010, Fall 2011, Fall 2012
499 Senior Departmental Honors
Spring semester. The Department.2013-14: Offered in Spring 2014
Other years: Offered in Spring 2009, Spring 2010, Spring 2011, Spring 2012, Spring 2013