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## Reporting Results of Statistical Tests

**General Instructions**

1. You must underline the following statistics when reporting them in a manuscript:

F (F ratio in ANOVA)

M (mean)

n (number in a subsample)

N (total number in a sample)

ns (nonsignificant)

p (probability),

r (Pearson product-moment correlation)

r2 (Pearson product-moment correlationn squared)

SD (standard deviation)

t (value of t-test)

You do not underline (alpha) or X^{2} (value of a chi-square test)

2. If you have the exact p value from the computer, you can report the exact value for p, e.g.,

p = .013, or you can report p < .05.

3. You must put a space before and after an equal sign, e.g. M = 12.3.

4. If the results are not significant, you can report p > .05 or ns (for nonsignificance).

**Reporting Results**

**Independent Groups T-tests**

“The group using mental images recalled more words (M = 25, SD = 4.71) than the group that did not use mental images (M = 19, SD = 4.22). This difference was significant, t(18) = -3.00, p < .05.” (text, p. 299)

The group using mental images recalled significantly more words (M = 25, SD = 4.71) than the group that did not use mental images (M = 19, SD = 4.22), t(18) = -3.00, p < .05.

Depressed subjects' recall of events that happened to themselves did not differ in negativity

(M = 6.18, SD = 1.44) from non-depressed subjects' recall of such events (M = 6.27, SD = 1.47), t(213) = -.46, ns.

Comparison of final GPAs for athletes (M = 3.39, SD = .31) and nonathletes (M = 3.47, SD = .31) revealed no significant differences between the groups t(167) = -1.56, ns.

**Repeated-measures T-test**

“Relaxation training resulted in a decrease (M = 3.2, SD = 1.92) in the number of doses of medication needed to control asthma symptoms. This reduction was statistically significant, t(4) = -3.72, p < .05, two-tailed.” (text, p. 321) (Note: M here is the mean difference score.)

Relaxation training resulted in a significant decrease (M = 3.2, SD = 1.92) in the number of doses of medication needed to control asthma symptoms t(4) = -3.72, p < .05, two-tailed.

**Significance of a correlation coefficient**

“A correlation for the data revealed that amount of education and annual income were significantly related, r = .65, N = 30, p < .01, two tails.” (text, p. 517). Higher annual income was associated with more years of education.

There was a significant correlation between amount of education and annual income, r = .65, n = 30, p<.01, two tails. Higher annual income was associated with more years of education.

Commitment did not correlate significantly with the negative life event measure, r = .16, n = 50, ns, two tails.

For athletes, growth as a person was positively correlated with time spent with teammates on the field (r = .26, N = 73, p < .05). More time on the field was associated with greater growth for athletes.

**One way analysis of variance**

"The means and standard deviations are presented in Table 1. The analysis of variance revealed a significant difference, F(3,8) = 9.00, p < .05." (text, p. 395)

A one-way analysis of variance revealed significant differences between the groups, F(3,8) = 9.00, p < .05. The means and standard deviations are presented in Table 1.

A one-way ANOVA of group comfort yielded no significant differences between groups in regard to overall feelings of experienced comfort F(4, 114) = 0.96, ns. The means and standard deviations are presented in Table 1.

**Post hoc tests for the one way analysis of variance**

Post hoc comparisons using the Fisher LSD test revealed that individuals receiving Drug A showed a significantly greater reduction in symptoms than those receivingDrug B or those receiving the Placebo, but individuals receiving Drug B did not differ significantly from the Placebo group.

Post hoc comparisons using the Fisher LSD test revealed that both Blacks and Asians were significantly less satisfied with their academic performance than Whites.

**Repeated measures ANOVA**

"The means and standard deviations for the sample of children are shown in Table 1. A repeated-measures analysis of variance revealed that the response-cost technique produced a significant decrease in classroom disruptions over the course of the study, F(3,9) = 21.04, p < .05" (text, p. 435)

**Two-factor ANOVA**

"The means and standard deviations are presented in Table 1. The two-factor analysis of variance showed no significant main effect for the weight factor, F(1,76) = .28, p > .05; no significant main effect for the fullness factor, F(1,76) = 2.54, p > .05; but the interaction between weight and fullness was significant, F(1,76) = 4.51, p <. 05." (text, p. 476)

Note: You must now go on to describe the interaction effect in words.

A two-factor analysis of variance showed a significant effect of sex of face rated, F(1,126) = 6.79, p <. 05. Female faces were rated as more honest than male faces. The effect of race of face was significant F(1,126)= 8.22, p <. 05. Black faces were perceived to be more honest than white faces. There was no significant interaction between race and sex of face, F(1,126) = 1.26, ns.

A 2 x 2 ANOVA revealed a significant effect of sex of face rated F(1,126) = 12.06, p <. 01. Female faces were rated as more attractive than male faces. There was a significant effect of sex of rater, F(1,126) = 10.73, p <. 01. Male raters gave higher attractiveness ratings than female raters. There was a significant interaction between sex of rater and sex of face rated F(1,126) = 5.89, p <. 05. Raters gave higher ratings to same-sex faces than they did to opposite sex faces.

**2 way ANOVA with a repeated measures factor**

There was a significant effect of strength of ethnic identity (F(1, 98) = 37.38, p < .001). Students who entered college with stronger ethnic identities engaged in more ethnic behaviors and practices . There was a significant increase over time in student involvement in ethnic behaviors and practices (F(1,98) = 4.08, p < .05). There was no significant interaction between strength of ethnic identity and change over time F(1,98) = .98, p >. 05

**Chi-square goodness of fit tests**

"The students showed a significant preference on the question concerning factors involved in course selection, X^{2} (3, N = 50) = 8.08, p < .05. (text, p. 557)

Women were found to prefer three titles for a new literary magazine equally, "Today,"

"Choice," and "New Alternatives," X^{2} (2)=.45, N = 60, NS.

**Chi-square tests of independence**

There was a significant relationship between level of self-esteem and academic performance,

X^{2} (2, n=150)=8.22, p<.05. Higher self-esteem was associated with higher academic performance.

High dominance individuals became leaders significantly more often than did low dominance individuals, X^{2} (1)=4.26, n=60, p<.05.

Students who entered college with stronger ethnic identities were more likely to have joined an ethnic organization by the end of freshman year than students with weaker ethnic identities (X^{2} = 20.73, N = 107, p < .001).