Amherst files affirmative-action brief with the Supreme Court

In February, Amherst joined 28 other leading liberal arts colleges in filing a “friend of the court” brief to the U.S. Supreme Court in one of the most significant civil rights cases in decades. The court is hearing two cases against the University of Michigan, filed by white applicants who charge they were denied admission to the University and its law school because of policies that give preference to minority students. The two cases, Gratz vs. Bollinger and Grutter vs. Bollinger, for which the court heard oral arguments on April 1, effectively challenge the affirmative action guidelines set down by the court in the 1978 Bakke case, which have guided admissions policies at virtually all American colleges and universities, including Amherst, for the past 25 years. The Bakke case made racial quotas illegal and instead allowed for race to be considered along with a number of other factors in achieving racial diversity in student bodies in a more open-ended way. The plaintiffs’ lawyers in both cases asked the court to set aside the Bakke judgment, to find unconstitutional any admissions policy that used race in any way. If the high court rules against the university, it could have sweeping implications for all American colleges and universities and could fundamentally change civil rights policy in the United States.

Amherst’s brief, one of 74 filed with the court in the case, supports both the University of Michigan and the Bakke standards. The brief was produced by President Tom Gerety, who is a lawyer and scholar of constitutional law, and Amherst alumnus Charles Sims ’71, an attorney with Proskauer Rose LLP of New York. It was signed by 28 similar institutions, including Barnard, Bates, Bowdoin, Bryn Mawr, Carleton, Colby, Connecticut, Davidson, Franklin and Marshall, Hamilton, Smith, Swarthmore, Trinity, Vassar, Wellesley and Williams colleges, and Colgate, Washington and Lee, Wesleyan, Lawrence and Tufts universities.

“Private selective colleges and universities,” the brief argues, “have made. . . a collective judgment that obtaining diversity in their classes, including racial diversity, is a matter of profound educational importance and social importance, and that the way to obtain that diversity is by seeking it, in a process in which the reality of race is considered competitively along with dozens of other factors. . . . The simple fact is that African-American young men and women were, until the mid-1960s, absent or rare at every one of the [colleges signing the brief] to a degree inexplicable except as a consequence of the underlying discrimination rampant throughout American society and systematic denial of equal opportunity. . . . In the years since the King assassination sparked reflection and action across American campuses, [the institutions represented in the brief] have graduated more African-American students than in the previous 175 years. They have done so through the use of race-conscious admissions efforts permitted by Bakke—indispensable efforts that Petitioners would foreclose.”

Briefs filed on behalf of the plaintiffs, including one from the White House, promote alternative methods for achieving diversity, especially favoring a Texas model that guarantees college admission to all students in the top 10 percent of high school graduating classes. This approach, argues the Amherst brief, is fatally flawed. “The Texas program,” the brief says, “depends for its very effectiveness on the existence of a huge number of segregated-in-fact schools. If public schools mirrored the community at large, the Texas plan would result in no diversity whatever. Moreover, the plan would seem to discriminate against brighter minority students in better integrated schools. . . because it guarantees admission to top 10 percent students at all a state’s worst schools, while effectively shutting out minority students just below 10 percent at the best schools in the state, even if those students seem better candidates by the assessment of educators.”

The consequence of reversing the Bakke decision and having no affirmative action program at all, argues the brief, would be even worse. “Black enrollment would likely be reduced ‘by between 50 and 70 percent,’” the brief says, quoting a definitive Harvard study. “Seriously enforced, a race-neutral policy would ‘presumably take black enrollments. . . back to early 1960s levels.’”

The Supreme Court ruled on the two cases on Monday, June 23. Washington Post article.

Gerety will lead Brennan Center

gerety convocation

The board of directors of the Brennan Center for Justice at NYU School of Law in May announced the appointment of departing Amherst College president Tom Gerety as executive director.

The Brennan Center, which was founded in 1995, is named after Supreme Court Justice William J. Brennan, and combines elements of a public-interest law firm, a think tank and an advocacy organization to promote inclusive democracy and justice. The center’s three main programs address criminal justice, democracy and poverty. The center was instrumental in the enactment of the McCain-Feingold campaign-finance law and in a 2001 Supreme Court decision that struck down a law preventing legal-aid attorneys from challenging welfare laws.

“It’s a very different venue and a different activity for me,” Gerety told the Daily Hampshire Gazette. “I wanted to get re-engaged with issues I was directly involved with in the 1960s and later. A lot of us who are liberals feel there is a crisis in civil liberties and civil rights and for the poor, both here and abroad.” He gives the example of the Brennan Center’s efforts to change laws that prevent felons from voting after they have served their prison terms. “Who knows if it’s a winnable battle,” he said, “but it’s a wonderful battle. It’s all about redemption in our society, coming back from doing wrong.”

Gerety earned his J.D. at Yale Law School. Before coming to Amherst, he served for five years as president of Trinity College in Hartford. Before that, he was a law professor at the University of Pittsburgh and the University of Cincinnati, where he was also dean of the law school.

Gerety also has received a university-wide academic appointment at NYU: he will be the Brennan Center for Justice Professor. Richard L. Revesz, dean of the NYU School of Law, said, “Tom Gerety will be a spectacular leader for the Brennan Center. He will be able to capture the synergies available to the center from its relationship with NYU School of Law, bringing together the best academics, policy analysts and litigators to address our nation’s social problems.”

Gerety said, “We’re in this fight with lots of others who care about these issues—about civil rights, about the poor and their advocates, about the promise of democracy. Particularly important colleagues are the many experienced and devoted people around the country—in advocacy groups, service agencies and foundations—who stand shoulder to shoulder with us in all that we do.”

The Brennan Center was started by a group of former law clerks for Justice Brennan, and reflects his approach to the law. “He had a passionate commitment to basic fairness,” Gerety said, “and this led him to have one of the most generous visions of democracy on the court.” That approach is consistent with Gerety’s own efforts at Amherst. While at the college, he taught a first-year seminar on “Inner City America,” in which students volunteered at social-service agencies in Amherst and Holyoke. He also arranged for Amherst land to be used for a Habitat for Humanity project and established Fellowships for Action to encourage Amherst students to become involved with community or human services work in the U.S. and abroad.

Gerety’s tenure at Amherst ended June 30.

Photo: Frank Ward

The state of political debate on campus

march shadows
While large public protests against the invasion of Iraq were taking place in cities around the world, on the Amherst campus political views were more private. 

As the winter drew to a close, op-ed pages nationwide were littered with heated arguments about political issues: President Bush and his policies regarding Iraq, affirmative action at the University of Michigan, how to best handle the threat of a biochemical terrorist attack. News shows and magazines offered another forum for opinions: pundits debated how such matters should be treated, trading scholarly knowledge about how similar issues had been handled in the past.

So what was going on at Amherst, a place where intellectual curiosity and lively debate of timely issues is encouraged?

Strangely, it seemed that large percentages of both the faculty and the student body were not involved in very much on-campus discussion. A forum on the U.S.-Iraq situation, held in the Cole Assembly Room in Converse Hall, drew far more town residents than people affiliated with the college; a rally outside Valentine calling for more political debate drew not a crowd of political activists but a herd of confused students trying to get to lunch before their afternoon class. (Students and faculty took issue with a front-page New York Times story that depicted this event as an example of a polarized campus, with leftist professors trying to foist their views on a conservative student body.)

Far from being uninformed or uncaring, Amherst students were in many ways involved; roughly 100 boarded vans to New York for the February 15 Rally For Peace, and political issues were debated in the Amherst Student and The Indicator. But actual discussion at Amherst remained—as it has for many political issues in the past—in something of a lull.

“I think there is discussion within certain groups, the ones you’d expect—the political organizations like the Amherst Republicans or the Amherst Democrats, that kind of thing,” said junior Shanda Gomes. “In general, if you bring up topics, people will have a lot of very strong opinions. But you wouldn’t know that if you didn’t make a point of asking about it.”

Phil Maciak ’05, The Indicator’s former editor-in-chief, concurred. “Every once in a while, when there’s some big issue that comes up, I feel like people start talking about it,” he said. “The college will bring some large-issue-based speaker, like the affirmative action debate [between Andrew Hacker ’51 and University of California regent Ward Connerly], and discussion will start because of the table tents advertising it or the event itself or something like that. But that’s in smaller groups. Outside of my friends, who are all pretty political, I don’t see myself having a conversation with some larger group of Amherst students.”

Of course, trying to explain such a phenomenon at the Fairest College makes the issue more complicated; even asking about the nature of debate here constitutes another debate in and of itself. Ask Amherst a question, and get a million passionately argued answers.

“I’m not sure whether it’s just something about people who come to Amherst, or if it’s a broader condition of society, a general state of political apathy,” said Professor of Philosophy Alexander George, who noted the low turnout at the Iraq forum. “I don’t know whether it’s because people just aren’t thinking about it—I don’t think that’s true, given the turnout for the rally in New York. I don’t know whether people are set in their own minds as to how they feel about it and aren’t interested in political discussion, or if they see what’s going to happen as inevitable. [But] there’s never been a tremendous amount of political concern among students, at least in the 15 years I’ve been here. It waxes and wanes, depending on what’s going on in the world and who the students are at the time.”

While genuine apathy would definitely be cause for concern, Gomes fears a situation in which students would regularly dive into political activism without understanding what was going on. “It would be bad if it were the other extreme,” she said. “I wouldn’t want it to be one of those campuses where everybody was active about everything. You get the feeling that in those places, people aren’t actually invested in the things they’re talking about. They just voice opinions because they think they should. And I wouldn’t want that to happen here.”

Another equally undesirable alternative is an atmosphere in which debate is squelched by stubborn adherence to individual ideas, as opposed to open discussion of ideas. This is a condition that Andrew Gillette ’04 feels is becoming much too prevalent at Amherst. “The people who are the political voices on campus—the heads of big political organizations—are the ones who aren’t willing to budge,” he said. “Unfortunately, the people that are open-minded are less vocal because they’re the ones trying to hear a lot of things and figure out what they believe themselves. Amherst students have these strong ambitions and strongly held beliefs, which is good, yet when they enter into discussions they assume that anyone who doesn’t also hold those beliefs is necessarily wrong. And you can’t get anywhere in discussion that way.”

Although they all offer different explanations for the relative lack of discussion of political issues on campus, none of these members of the Amherst community thinks that this sparsity is a result of disinterest. “Maybe it’s the atmosphere; maybe we don’t see ourselves as a politically active campus,” said Gomes, one of those who traveled to New York for the rally. “It would just be nice if there was more discussion. You get the feeling that people are apathetic, but I don’t think they actually are.”

— Rebecca Louick ’04

Photo: Corbis

Affinity alumni counsel affinity students

affinity table

In mid-April, two events with similarly unwieldy names were held on campus to offer similarly important support for minority students and alumni. One was the second Asian/Pacific/American Alumni Weekend, and the other was the Fifth Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Transgender/ Transsexual Alumni/Student Mentoring Weekend. The aim for both was to help alumni and current students in these minority communities establish bonds, discuss their respective place in the history of Amherst, debate current issues and envision their place in Amherst’s future.

Dozens of alumni began the Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender/Transsexual (GLBT) weekend by attending classes and then visiting the Rainbow Room, a gay and lesbian resource center maintained by the Amherst College Pride Alliance and Elaine Brigham, coordinator of LBGTQ (the “Q” is for “questioning”) student services and support. Other alumni and students spent the afternoon at a gallery talk by Geoffrey Hendricks ’53, professor emeritus at the Mason Gross School of the Arts at Rutgers University and guest curator of a Mead Art Museum exhibition on the Fluxus movement.

Alumni Secretary and Executive Director of Alumni and Parent Programs Betsy Cannon Smith ’84 praised the weekend’s increased attendance during a Pride Alliance dinner, recalling that the first GLBT event in 1999 was, “very small, around five alumni and three students pulled into a small circle of chairs in Smith House.” Affirmative Action Officer and College Ombudsman Hermenia Gardner added her own praise, and urged alumni to use the weekend as an opportunity to speak with current students, and to offer themselves as mentors and role models.

The weekend’s keynote speaker was Judy Shepard, whose son, Matthew, was a gay student who was killed in a widely publicized attack in Wyoming. In front of a packed Johnson Chapel audience, Shepard emphasized, “One of the things I advocate in my program is coming out, staying out and being a role model and a mentor. We are not born knowing how to love; we’re not born knowing how to hate. We learn both.” She also urged her listeners to vote. “Don’t let things just happen to you in this arena,” she said. “It’s too important.”

Saturday morning saw Eric Thalasinos ’02 present his senior honors thesis, “The Gay History of Amherst College and the Pioneer Valley.” At lunch, Professor of Classics and Women’s and Gender Studies Rick Griffiths gave a humorous talk about the state of the Amherst faculty, which, Griffiths said, has an unusually high number of GLBT members. “Amherst has been in a very utopian situation,” he commented; but he also pointed out that the administrative staff at Amherst did not have proportionally as many GLBT members as the faculty. At an afternoon panel presentation titled “Out in the World: Being Queer in the Workplace,” six alumni spoke of their experiences to an interested audience and fielded questions from the group. After a short break, Kevin Kumashiro, the director of the Center for Anti-Oppressive Education, spoke on “Troubling Stories of Queer Asian America.”

The GLBT weekend concluded with a senior honors thesis concert featuring new music by John R. Downey ’03, followed by an informal, well-attended party.

At the same time, dozens of alumni and students began the Asian/Pacific/American Alumni Weekend, with bubble tea and refreshments at the Asian Culture House. On Saturday, planning committee co-chairs Raldy Laguilles ’97 (from the Office of Alumni & Parent Programs), Alina Wong ’97 and Aliza Wong ’94 introduced the weekend’s keynote speaker, Katherine Chia ’88. An Amherst trustee and prominent architect and designer, Chia founded the Amherst Cambodian Refugee Tutoring Program as a student. Chia’s talk traced the sometimes difficult history of the Asian/Pacific/American (APA) community at Amherst, though she praised current efforts by the college and members of the APA community to create bonds with other affinity groups. “I think what is important is that this conversation exists,” Chia said, “and that the college provides a forum for this conversation. Our shared hope of diversity at places like Amherst is being threatened in a very real way. We need to state our point of view. I’m very proud to say that Amherst College is at the forefront of that discussion.”

A Saturday morning panel on “Amherst Past” featured John Ming-Yee Lee ’59, a partner at John M.Y. Lee/Michael Timchula Architects, and Richard S. Kim ’97, an MBA candidate at Northwestern University, while an afternoon panel on “Amherst Present” featured student representatives from the Korean American Students Association, the Pacific Islander/South-East Asian Students, the South Asian Student Organization, Asian Culture House and Asian Students Association and the APA Studies Certificate program. Students and alumni met for roundtable discussions on “Amherst Future,” “Activism at Amherst and Beyond” and “Career Networking and Life After Amherst.” The afternoon concluded with a vocal recital by Benjamin de la Fuente ’97, sponsored by the Department of Music.

Following an art exhibition and informal networking over dinner, several of the APA alumni made an appearance at the same informal party attended by participants from the Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender/Transsexual Alumni-Student Mentoring Weekend.

For both events, perhaps the most significant accomplishment was the encouragement they provided for students who face challenges as minorities. “The GLBT Alumni Weekend was a great opportunity for students to meet alumni who live their lives successfully and openly,” said Pem Brown ’06. “It is important to realize that those [attributes] are not mutually exclusive. There was a great turnout of GLBT alumni, and many indicated that they wanted to be available as resources for students beyond just the weekend.”

— Rebecca Binder ’02

Photo: Frank Ward

New dorms for old

williston wrapped
Looking like a Christo installation, Williston Hall is wrapped while work crews renovate the interior. 

Spring has finally come to Amherst, and this year the sound of jackhammers will accompany the more familiar sounds of the season, as work on the Residential Master Plan goes into high gear.

The project got under way last summer, when the conversion of Williston Hall to a dormitory was begun. Interior work on that building is well along, and exterior work will be completed by August. The first of the projects designed to allow the college to house all first-year students on the Quad, Williston is scheduled to open as a 36-room dorm this fall.

Work on North and South College will begin in June and continue through August 2004. When the buildings reopen for first-year students, they’ll retain their historic exteriors but feature renovated rooms with upgraded fire and electrical systems. Work on James and Stearns will begin in June 2004, and the conversion of Charles Pratt to a dorm is scheduled to
be complete by 2007.

Dovetailing with these dormitory renovations is one of the biggest projects of this summer: the completion of the infrastructure work that began a year ago. The moniker “Fairest College” may briefly fall out of use while the roads on the Quad and across campus are turned to rubble so that electrical, telephone, fiber optic, water, steam and fire protection systems can be upgraded or completely replaced. The paths across campus will be restored by the time new students arrive in August.

One of those paths will lead to two new dormitories that are scheduled to open to juniors and seniors in September 2004. Construction has already begun; this summer workers will lay foundations, install utilities and erect walls and floors. Once finished, the new dorms will feature granite exteriors, as well as large, comfortable lounges for socializing, private study nooks and single rooms with plenty of storage space and convenient surface areas for computers and other equipment. In fact, every new student residence will include social and study space. Plans call for a small library and modern kitchenettes in several residences, and a light-filled, all-campus arts studio on the first floor of Charles Pratt. This mixed-use design reflects the current philosophy of college housing and, in the case of Amherst, also has some practical uses. “We have more theatrical, dance and musical groups than we’ve ever had before, and the academic departments just don’t have enough space to accommodate all these extracurricular activities,” says Ben Lieber, dean of students. “So one of the commitments we’ve made is to try to enhance that within the dormitories.”

Major renovations like these, of course, cost money. To help pay for the Residential Master Plan, the Board of Trustees has approved an ambitious “Trustee Challenge” that will match all Residential Master Plan gifts over $50,000 on a one-for-three basis. (For every three dollars donated by an alumnus, parent or friend, the challenge will contribute one dollar). The matching money comes from a seed of $20 million contributed by trustees themselves, demonstrating how important they consider this upgrade to the college’s residential facilities.

Rebecca Louick ’04 thinks the work is important, too. “My dorm is my home, and my roommates are like my family. We talk to each other about everything: our classes, our lives, our plans, what we just heard on the news. It’s great to have people who are there. We eat together, study, listen to music, share ideas. You really need that, as much as you need the library and the computer center.”

In fact, most students, along with generations of alumni, find that residential life is a central part of the Amherst experience. Living on campus affords students the opportunity to form deep, enduring friendships. It also encourages a civilizing exchange of ideas, resources and opinions with a broad spectrum of people, the foundation of a community. President Gerety, an advocate for residential life as one of the cornerstones of a liberal arts education, perhaps puts it best: “To room with another person is to be forced to converse about the most basic order of the room and the day: you sleep here and I there; you put your stuff over here; what time shall we set the alarm for and when shall we be quiet. It is to make oneself vulnerable to the other—in one’s person, in one’s goods, and, if there is any trust at all, in one’s ideas and ideals.”

— Leanna James

Photo: Mark Cherrington

The Class of 2007

Predictions about the economy might be bleak, and the political outlook may be daunting, but the academic future certainly looks bright, if the incoming Class of 2007 is any indication. According to Dean of Admission and Financial Aid Tom Parker, Amherst this year had 5,622 applicants, the highest number in history and an increase of 8.35 percent over last year. (The previous record, set in 2000, was 5,310). Of those, 922—or 16 percent—have been accepted by the college, and 416 of them are expected to matriculate.

As usual, the accepted students’ academic credentials are formidable, with average SAT scores of 724 (verbal) and 718 (math). They count 292 National Merit Scholarship semifinalists and 116 valedictorians among their number. The majority of them, 59 percent, come from public schools, with 36 percent from private schools and 5 percent from parochial schools. Three of the accepted applicants were home-schooled. (All figures in this report refer to the pool of accepted applicants; figures for matriculants are not final until fall).

The admitted class reflects Amherst’s emphasis on racial diversity, with 127 African Americans, 128 Asian Americans, 97 Latinos, 4 Native Americans, 69 students who identify themselves as being of mixed parentage and 50 international students. Besides the U.S., the countries providing the most students are Canada, South Korea, Bulgaria, India, China (Hong Kong), Jamaica, the Philippines and Romania; New York, California, Massachusetts, New Jersey, Illinois, Texas, Connecticut, Florida, Pennsylvania and Maryland were the states most strongly represented. One hundred and eighteen sons and daughters of alumni applied this year, and 56 of them were admitted.

One of the most notable statistics about this class is the male-female balance. With 453 men and 469 women, the ratio is (coincidentally?) almost exactly the same as that for the country as a whole.

From the Folger

folger malvolio

If the Folger never acquired another rare book, our conservators would still be busy for years to come working on the restoration and preservation of the books and manuscripts that we already have in our vaults. (There are more than 150,000 rare volumes in the library.) One bookcase in our subterranean vault is labeled “Rare and Modern Books Needing TLC,” for books in urgent need of attention. Other books wait their turn, which usually comes when one is going to be put on exhibition here or elsewhere, and sometimes comes when a rare book’s condition has deteriorated from use by scholarly readers.

However, the Folger does acquire “new” rare books all the time. We do so both through operating expenses and through endowments, including a particularly generous Fellowship and Acquisitions Fund from the Trustees of Amherst College. These funds allow us to enter the rare book market with a chance of competing for prized volumes. Some rare books, though, will be forever beyond our reach: the most recent Shakespeare First Folio to come up for auction went for a record $6.2 million to an anonymous bidder. (And to think that the Folger has 79 copies of the First Folio!) Recently, however, we were able to acquire a remarkable, rare, early 17th-century book. It is Thomas Campion’s 1602 Observations on the art of English poesie, offered to us by a collector of first editions of English poetry who had decided to concentrate on the 18th and 19th centuries. Campion’s book is very rare, indeed—one of five extant copies, the last in private hands and the only copy in North America. (The others are all in British libraries.) In this book, Campion—best known as a writer of songs for the lute—argues that the English language is unsuitable for rhyme, which he describes as a “childish titillation.” Despite what I consider Campion’s regrettable attitude toward rhyme, the book clearly belongs at the Folger.

Other acquisitions may be less important to the collection, but no less thrilling to those of us tasked with enhancing our holdings. Every year, we put our most recent acquisitions up for “adoption” on a festive evening in late winter or early spring. Friends of the Folger gather to look over the year’s acquisitions and donate to the library the cost of the book or pamphlet or engraving that most appeals to their own interests. (My husband, a Democrat and no friend of regressive taxes, “adopted” a satirical pamphlet of 1733. It is highly critical of Prime Minister Walpole’s excise scheme and features an allegorical woodcut depicting Walpole driving a coach pulled by the dragon Excise.) My own two favorite items for adoption this year were, not surprisingly, wonderful editions of Shakespeare. One of them, an otherwise unremarkable 1863 edition of Shakespeare’s dramatic works, was acquired because its entire fore-edge had been decorated with a delicate painting of the cottage of Shakespeare’s wife, Anne Hathaway, in Stratford-upon-Avon, familiar to generations of Shakespeare pilgrims. My other favorite was an edition of Twelfth Night dating from 1884, with the title page annotation “As arranged for the stage by Henry Irving.” Here again the book itself was unremarkable except for decorations added by an early owner. On every page of this little book were pen-and-ink sketches of the actors involved in Irving’s production—90 sketches in all. There is Irving himself as Malvolio (see illustration), with his long, beak-nosed face and elegantly thin body, and the famous actress Ellen Terry equally recognizable in her role as Viola. The artist was Ethel Webling, a 19th-century portrait and miniature painter, who signed her illustrations on the last page of the text. The book is charming. It is a complete delight to leaf through its pages, every white space filled with the artist’s impressions of Irving’s production. We do not know if Webling illustrated Irving’s other Shakespeare texts. But if such illustrated texts do exist, I hope that someday the Folger will have a chance to buy them.

— Gail Kern Paster


A compilation of recent remarks expressed at Amherst.

“The opponent we fear is not someone who disagrees with us. The opponent that really irritates us is someone who sees himself as above the fray: this cynical or disengaged character, with his gull’s-eye relativistic view.”

Simon Blackburn, professor of philosophy at the University of Cambridge
In a lecture on “Objectivity and Truth: You’d Better Be Cheerful”; in the Forry Fund Lecture Series on “Objectivity in Science and Ethics”
Cole Assembly Room, March 27, 2003

“Women and gays and blacks must be protected from the punch line of a joke as though women and gays and blacks, who have fought hard and valiantly, are too weak to handle freedom and the Bill of Rights.”

Alan Kors, president of the Foundation for Individual Rights in Education, condemning speech codes at colleges and universities
In a talk sponsored by the Amherst College Republicans
Pruyne Lecture Hall, Fayerweather Hall, April 14, 2003

“One day in 1997 we got the international treaty to ban landmines signed. Two days later I got the Nobel Peace Prize, and two days after that, I got fired. Life had a lot of ups and downs then.”

Nobel Peace Laureate Jody Williams, founder of the International Campaign to Ban Landmines
In a talk about her life as a peace activist
Johnson Chapel, April 10, 2003

“There is no example I can think of where reconstruction [of a country] was carried out by the forces that fought the war. The U.S. will have to accept the U.N. because even the most powerful country cannot act in isolation. The U.N. doesn’t have tank columns to stop the U.S., but that doesn’t mean it’s powerless.”

Jan Kavan, president of the United Nations General Assembly
In a talk on “Managing the Iraq Crisis: The U.N.’s Role—Past,
Present and Future”
Cole Assembly Room, April 16, 2003