Environmental Health & Safety

Lock-Out / Tag-Out Policy

HAZARDOUS ENERGY CONTROL 

Scope:

In accordance with the Amherst College Environmental Health & Safety Policy, the following Hazardous Energy Control guidelines have been designed to provide the appropriate health and safety requirements that are to be followed when maintaining or servicing equipment, machinery and /or processes that might cause personal injury or property damage. The guidelines have been established in order to comply with all local, state and federal regulations, including that of the Occupational Health & Safety Administration (OSHA), 29 CFR 1910.147 and all applicable nationally recognized standards.

Purpose:

To establish guidelines and performance objectives for the health and safety of Amherst College faculty, staff, students, visitors and outside contractors. The Hazardous Energy Control Guidelines shall provide personal protection from injury due to unexpected energization, startup or release of stored energy. It is designed to protect persons who might be working in, on or around equipment or machinery when it is being maintained, operated, repaired or serviced. The guidelines require all energy isolating devices for equipment, machinery and processes to be properly labeled or otherwise identified, and when required, shall have the appropriate approved, substantial Lock-Out / Tag-Out device attached.

Application:

The Amherst College Hazardous Energy Control Guidelines and other applicable requirements found here-in shall at least comply with if not exceeds local, state and federal requirements. This guideline shall apply to work that involves the adjusting, construction, erecting, inspecting, installing, maintaining, operating, repairing and otherwise servicing the equipment, machines or processes. It will pertain to all energy sources including, but not limited to; chemical, electrical, hydraulic, mechanical, nuclear, pneumatic, radioactive and thermal. It is the responsibility of all companies and personnel working at Amherst College to adhere to this Hazardous Energy Control Guideline, unless the use of a stricter guideline, policy or program is utilized.

Definitions

Affected Person - A person whose job requires that they operate or use a machine or equipment on which maintenance or service is being performed; or whose job requires that they work in an area in which maintenance or service is being performed

Authorized Person - A knowledgeable individual to whom authority and responsibility to perform a specific assignment has been given by the employer or designee.

“Capable of being locked out” - an energy isolating device which has, either by design or other attachment or integral part through which a lock can be affixed. Lock-out should be possible without dismantling, rebuilding or replacing the energy isolating device or permanently alter the energy control capacity.

Energized - Connected to an energy source that does or may contain residual or stored energy.

Energy Isolating Device - A physical device that prevents the transmission or release of energy, including but not limited to; circuit breakers, disconnect switches, manually operated switches, slide gates, slip blinds, line valves, blocks and similar devices used to block or isolate energy.
*Push buttons, light switches, selector switches and timers are not energy isolating devices.

Energy Isolation Verification - The operation or testing of the equipment, machine or process (push buttons, switches, timers etc.) that will determine whether or not the energy isolation was effective. This process will detect, relieve, disconnect, or restrain any residual or stored energy.

Energy Source - Any source of chemical, electrical, hydraulic, mechanical, nuclear, pneumatic, radioactive (laser or x-ray), thermal, or other type of energy.

Hot Tap - A procedure used in the repair, maintenance and service activities which involves welding on a piece of equipment (pipelines, vessels, tanks etc.) under pressure in order to install connections or appurtenances. It is commonly used to replace or add sections of pipeline without interruption of air, chemical, gas, steam or water distribution systems. This may include an electrical tap to an existing live electrical feeder, using piercing connectors.

Lock-Out - Placement of a lock on an energy isolating device, which insures that the energy isolating device and the equipment, machine and/or process being controlled can not be operated until the lock has been removed by the qualified person who initially installed it.

Lock-Out Device - An approved device which may or may not include a hasp capable of withstanding the environment it shall be exposed to, and that incorporates a lock and a key that will hold an energy isolating device in the safe position, to protect all affected personnel.

Maintenance and Servicing - Activities including but not limited to; adjusting constructing, inspecting, installing, maintaining, modifying or setting up equipment, machines or processes. This can include adjusting, cleaning, lubricating or unjamming of equipment or machines, where the employee may be exposed to unexpected energization or start-up of the equipment, machines or processes, or the release of any type of hazardous energy.

Qualified Person - An individual who has the appropriate education, experience and training to work in and around the equipment, machinery or process, and knows the effect of operating the controls or equipment.

Substantial - applies to the physical integrity of both Lock-Out and Tag-Out devices. These devices shall meet the criteria identified below;
Lock-out devices shall be strong enough to prevent removal without the use of
excessive force or unusual techniques, such as with the use of bolt cutters or other metal cutting tool.
Tag-out devices shall be strong enough to prevent inadvertent or accidental removal. The attachment of these devices shall be of a non-reusable type, attachable by hand, self-locking, and non-releasable with a minimum unlocking strength of 50 lb. force. String affixed to a tag-out device shall be deemed not acceptable.

Tag-Out - Placement of a tag on an energy isolating device that indicates that the energy isolating device and the equipment being controlled must not be operated until the tag has been removed by the qualified person who initially installed it.

Tag-Out Device - a prominent warning device, such as an approved tag and a means of attachment which can be securely fastened to the energy isolating device. The tag shall be a two part, perforated tag with the word “Danger” prominently displayed. The tag shall indicate the energy isolating device and equipment being controlled. The tag-out device shall also be capable of withstanding the environment to which it is exposed, exterior or interior.

General Requirements for Lock-Out / Tag-Out

  • Amherst College has established this Hazardous Energy Control Guideline as part of its Environmental Health and Safety Policy. The guidelines which incorporate energy control procedures, employee training and periodic inspections were designed to protect faculty, staff, students, visitors and contractors from unexpected energization, startup or release of stored energy when equipment, machines or processes are maintained or serviced. The equipment, machinery and processes must be locked and /or tagged out to protect against accidental or inadvertent operation that might cause serious injury or fatality. The equipment, machines or processes shall be made safe and isolated from the energy source, rendering the equipment or machine inoperative.
  • The Hazardous Energy Control Guideline which includes Lock-Out / Tag-Out applies to both the maintenance and servicing of equipment, machines and processes. Activities that include; adjusting, constructing, inspecting, installing, maintaining, modifying, servicing or setting up equipment, machines or processes must incorporate the use of lock-out / tag-out.
  • Activities which involve cleaning, lubricating or unjamming of equipment, machines or processes, or those modifications that require adjustments or tool changes where there is a potential risk to the employee of accidental or unexpected startup or energization of equipment necessitate the use of lock-out / tag-out.
  • Computer controlled apparatus that might initiate startup or energization of equipment, machinery or processes must also be controlled by lock-out / tag-out if maintenance or service of that particular equipment, machine or process is required.
  • The Hazardous Energy Control Guidelines and Lock-Out / Tag-Out does not apply to;
    • Minor tool changes, adjustments and servicing activities that are considered part of the normal production operations, provided the work method used incorporates measures that will provide effective means of personal protection.
    • disconnection of cord from a power supply
    • the use of a stop button or switch which will not allow accidental activation when performing minor tool changes or
    • adjustments of small, portable equipment
    • Work on cord / plug connected equipment
    • if the cord / plug connection can not be seen by the repair or service person during work activities, or if the repair or service person must leave the work area while the equipment, machine or process is not operating according to manufacturers specifications, then the equipment, machine or process must be locked or tagged out to prevent accidental injury or fatality to a potential user.
    • Hot tap operations involving the transmission and distribution of materials and substances such as air, electricity, gas, steam or water, if performed on pressurized pipes, as long as Amherst College and/or the contractor can demonstrate that;
    • continuity of the energy service is essential
    • shut down of the system is impractical
    • procedures are to be followed that will adequately protect the health & safety of the personnel performing the work
    • Seasonal shutdown of cooling, heating or other similar equipment
    • Out-of-Service or discontinuance of service notifications
    • Lock-Out and/or Tag-Out can not be used for seasonal shutdown, “out-of-service” or discontinuance of service notifications since this equipment is not being either maintained or serviced.

Preplanning and Survey Requirements

An ongoing survey shall be conducted by the Physical Plant to identify all energy isolating devices and to determine if the equipment, machines, processes and systems can be isolated.

  • The survey shall cover all types of energy sources including; chemical, electric, hydraulic, mechanical, nuclear, pneumatic, radioactive and thermal (input and output) sources supplying equipment, machines or processes, as well as latent or residual energy.
  • all energy isolating devices shall be identified or labeled by a qualified person. The identification process must;
  • be continuous, until all energy isolating devices and equipment has been labeled.
  • incorporate all new installations of breakers, panels, switches and disconnects as is required in the National Electric Code, 1996 edition.
  • be performed by authorized personnel, under the direction of their supervisor.
  • require that all newly installed or recently maintained or serviced equipment, machines or processes be accurately labeled. The identification of the following energy isolating devices includes, but is not limited to;
    • circuit breakers and fuses
    • disconnects
    • electrical panels
    • piping (air, chemical, electric, fuel, gas, steam and water)
    • valves
  • If the equipment, machine or process being maintained or serviced is not in close proximity or visual sight of the energy isolating device, then both the energy isolating device and the equipment, machine or process it serves must be labeled.
    • the location of the energy isolating device can and should be located on or in the equipment or machine being maintained or serviced.
    • New installations of disconnects that supply energy to equipment, machines and processes must be positioned in visual sight of each other. The placement of disconnects in rooms remote from the equipment or machine they serve is prohibited.
    • All new energy isolating devices shall be capable of being locked and tagged out
    • Unlabeled or mislabeled energy isolating devices, equipment or machines shall be properly labeled as soon as possible. Supervisors shall verify that both authorized and qualified persons make the necessary changes, corrections and modifications, as required.
    • When replacement, repair or modification of equipment or machines is performed, and when new equipment is installed, energy isolating devices must also be incorporated. The energy isolating devices, including disconnects must be placed in close proximity to the equipment, machine or process it serves. Energy isolating devices must be designed, purchased and installed that will accept the appropriate lock-out / tag-out devices.
    • If more than one (1) type of energy serves a particular piece of equipment, machine or process that is to be maintained or serviced, then it shall be the responsibility of the supervisor, authorized person or qualified individual to prescribe the appropriate forms of lock-out / tag-out to be used.
    • It shall be the responsibility of the authorized person or supervisor to oversee the method being used. However, the procedure must insure a level of safety equal to or greater than an individual lock and key.

    Communication and Training

    • All “affected” and “authorized” personnel shall be notified about the requirements of the Hazardous Energy Guidelines and Lock-Out / Tag-Out.
    • All “affected” employees shall be instructed in the purpose and use of lock-out / tag-out by the Environmental Health & Safety Manager through training.
    • All “authorized” employees shall receive the required initial training and annual refreshers which include;
    • How to recognize all applicable energy sources
    • The adequate method of isolation
    • The proper identification and labeling of both energy isolating devices, equipment and machines.
    • Unauthorized removal of another persons Lock-Out / Tag-Out
      • device is prohibited, except in cases of emergency. Disciplinary action, identified in the Hazardous Energy Control Guidelines is required, according to OSHA. The disciplinary action may include;
        • verbal notification
        • verbal notification with a note to the personnel file
        • written reprimand
        • suspension
        • demotion or dismissal
      • Must be approved by a recognized testing agency (i.e. UL or FM)
      • Must be durable and able to stand up to the intended environment
      • Card stock tags are to be used in areas where elemental concerns are not an issue.
      • Plastic coated tags should be used in those locations that would render a card stock tag ineffective or unreadable (i.e. exterior or interior wet locations).
      • Must be unique and easily recognizable
      • Must be standardized ( i.e. color, format, shape, size, type and warning) for ease of recognition by the entire campus community
      • Must be substantial
      • Locks must be of such strength that only excessive force or specialized tool could defeat it.
      • Tags must be of such design that accidental removal is minimized. The use of string to secure the tag to the energy isolating device does not meet the intent of the code. Tags must also identify the initial installer and the purpose for Lock-Out / Tag-Out.
      • The tag out device must be filled out completely in permanent ink or marker
      • The bottom ½ of the perforated tag must be returned to the supervisor after the tag has been affixed to the energy isolating device for future reference. Suggested storage or placement of tags might include;
      • Box - similar to a card file which could be placed in the office
      • Hooks - mounted on the wall of the office
    • The Hazardous Energy Control Guidleines and Lock-Out / Tag-Out is not required for ...
      • Minor tool changes, adjustments and servicing activities that are considered part of the normal production operations, provided the work method used incorporates measures that will provide effective means of personal protection.
      • disconnection of cord from a power supply
      • the use of a stop button or switch which will not allow accidental activation when performing minor tool changes or
      • adjustments of small, portable equipment
      • Work on cord / plug connected equipment

When Lock-Out / Tag-Out Is Not Required

Exception
  • if the cord / plug connection can not be seen by the repair or service person during work activities, or if the repair or service person must leave the work area while the equipment, machine or process is not operating according to manufacturers specifications, then the equipment, machine or process must be locked or tagged out to prevent accidental injury or fatality to a potential user.
  • Hot tap operations involving the transmission and distribution of materials and substances such as air, electricity, gas, steam or water, if performed on pressurized pipes, as long as Amherst College and/or the contractor can demonstrate that;
  • continuity of the energy service is essential
  • shut down of the system is impractical
  • procedures are to be followed that will adequately protect the health & safety of the personnel performing the work
  • Seasonal shutdown of cooling, heating or other similar equipment
  • Out-of-Service or discontinuance of service notifications
  • Lock-Out and/or Tag-Out can not be used for seasonal shutdown, “out-of-service” or discontinuance of service notifications since this equipment is not being either maintained or serviced.
    • If more than one (1) type of energy serves a particular piece of equipment, machine or process that is to be maintained or serviced, then it shall be the responsibility of the supervisor, authorized person or qualified individual to prescribe the appropriate forms of lock-out / tag-out to be used.
      • It shall be the responsibility of the authorized person or supervisor to oversee the method being used. However, the procedure must insure a level of safety equal to or greater than an individual lock and key.

Multiple Forms of Energy

Standard Operating Guidelines for Lock-Out / Tag-Out Compliance

  • All affected and authorized persons, upon observing a piece of equipment, machine or process which is locked and / or tagged out shall not attempt to start, energize or use the equipment or machine.
  • Supervisors are responsible for effective implementation of these guidelines and shall when necessary for health and safety reasons enforce the provisions of the standard, as appropriate.
  • The energy isolating device must be capable of being locked out. Only authorized personnel who will be actively maintaining or servicing the equipment, machine or process will be permitted to utilize a lock-out device.
  • If the authorized person is not able to lock-out the equipment, machine or process because the energy isolating device could not accommodate the lock or lock shank, then a tag meeting the requirements of section 6 of this guideline can be used, provided that the supervisor can demonstrate that the tag-out device will provide the same or greater level of protection as the lock and key.

Protective Materials and Hardware

Amherst College shall supply all the equipment necessary to meet the requirements of the OSHA regulation, 29 CFR 1910.147.Blocks, chains, fasteners, locks, pins, tags and wedges can be used to isolate, secure or block the equipment, machine or processes from their respective energy sources.

Contractors working at or for Amherst College shall supply their own equipment, hardware and materials, including lock and tag-out devices. The equipment utilized by the contractor shall also conform to the requirements of section 6 of this guideline.

Lock-Out / Tag-Out Procedures

  • Notification: any and all affected persons shall be notified that maintenance or service is to be performed on a piece of equipment, machine or process, and that the equipment or machine must be shut down and locked or tagged-out in order to perform the necessary maintenance or service. The notification process can be accomplished in one or more ways;
  • Notification of Shut Down through the Physical Plant Service Desk
  • Notification of all affected persons at the time of maintenance or service by the person performing the repairs
  • Notification of all affected persons through a building coordinator or department head.

Application of Control(s) 

Prepare for shut down
  • Notify all affected persons that a shut down will occur
Shut down of Equipment or Machine
  • Shut-off or de-energize the equipment, machine or process using buttons, switches or valves
Isolate the equipment, machine or process
  • Shut down or de-activate the Energy Isolating Device (circuit breaker, disconnect, valves, slide gates, slip blinds etc.)
Affix the Lock-Out and/or Tag-Out Device
  • Affix the lock and / or tag to the energy isolating device
  • Return lower ½ of perforated tag to supervisor for later reference
Block, disconnect, relieve or restrain the stored or potential energy
  • Operate the push buttons, levers, switches and valves that may contain potential, residual or stored energy.
  • Block any possible movement of equipment to prevent accidental injury/fatality.

Restoration of Equipment

Inspect the work area
  • verify that non-essential items / tools have been removed from the area
Relocate faculty, staff, students, visitors and contractors
  • remove personnel from the area that will be affected, in case of malfunction
Notify all affected persons that Lock-Out / Tag-Out is to be removed

Remove Lock-Out / Tag-Out device
  • This must be performed by the original installer, except for documented emergencies.
Notify all affected persons that work has been completed and that the equipment, machines or processes are ready for use.
  • It shall be the responsibility of the authorized employee performing the maintenance or service work on the equipment, machines or processes to affix and then remove his or her own lock and tag from the energy isolating device.
  • Under no circumstances will an employee, other than the person who initially installed the lock or key be able to remove or alter a lock or tag out device affixed by another authorized or qualified person.
Exception:
  • When the authorized employee who initially installed the lock or tag-out device is not available to remove it, then the device can be removed for an emergency under the direction of the supervisor, provided that the following guidelines are adhered to by said supervisor;
  • Verify that the employee is not on campus
  • That all reasonable efforts to contact the employee have been made, without success
  • That the original installer of the lock or tag-out device has been made aware of the emergency removal before he or she resumes work, after they return. The notification to employee shall be in writing and must be posted in the most conspicuous location for that employee (i.e lock box for keys).

Group Lock-Out / Tag-Out

  • When maintenance or servicing of equipment, machines and processes is to be performed by authorized personnel of a crew, department, shop or group, a “group” lock-out / tag-out system can be used.
  • The primary responsibility for a group lock-out / tag-out rests with one particular individual for a set number of employees. This person, usually a supervisor, project manager or foreperson utilizes one of three methods for group lock-out / tag-out;
  • a personal lock attached to the energy isolating device that only he/she can remove
  • a hasp system for which each person in the group can attach a lock
  • a single lock and key utilized by all members of the group
  • Regardless of the method used for Group Lock-Out / Tag-Out, the procedure put to use is the personal responsibility of the supervisor, and must be at least as safe a individual lock and key system.
  • Orderly transfer of Lock-Out / Tag-Out must occur between on-coming and off-going personnel. The transfer must insure that the energy isolating device that is to be isolated is always locked or tagged for reasons of health and safety. The supervisor for the group, crew, shop or department shall identify specific procedures that will be most appropriate for his / her area.

    Lock Assignments

    • Each authorized AmherstCollege employee working for the Electrical, Mechanical and Plumbing departments will be initially issued six (6) lock-out locks and lengths of chain for the lock-out / tag-out program.
    • Locks and chain are available only through the Amherst College Physical Plant Lock Shop for reasons of continuity and personal safety.
    • Lock-out locks are stamped with the radio number designation of the authorized maintenance or service representative of the Physical Plant.
    • For example Dave Lauder will have locks assigned bearing the number M-25.
    • The pre-stamped locks can only be used by the authorized employee to whom they have been assigned. Unauthorized use or utilization of someone else’s lock(s) is a violation of the Hazardous Energy Control Regulations and the Amherst College Standard Operating Guidelines
    • In the event additional locks and/or chain is required, the authorized employee shall request of the Lock Shop additional chains and locks with the appropriate number stamped in place.
    • The authorized employee shall be given the six (6) initial locks and chain by the Amherst College Physical Plant Lock Shop. The six locks shall be made operational by a single key that has been given to that authorized employee. The only other keys that are permitted to operate those specific 6 locks, assigned to the authorized employee shall be maintained by the Physical Plant Lock Shop
    • See section 10 of these guidelines

    Lost Keys and/or Locks

    • In the event the authorized Amherst College employee has lost either their key or lock(s), they shall immediately report same to their supervisor and the Physical Plant Lock Shop.
    • The authorized employee having lost the key or lock(s) shall return all other issued key and locks to the Lock Shop for recore and key replacement, as required.

    Contractor Responsibility

    • Contractors shall have their own Hazardous Energy Control Policy as required by OSHA, 29 CFR 1910.147.
      • If working with employees of Amherst College, the policy used by the contractor must meet or exceed the requirements of this Standard Operating Guideline.
      • Contractors working at or for Amherst College must furnish a copy of their health and safety policies and procedures to the Physical Plant for review.
      • Contractors are required by the college to view and confirm that all applicable components of the Amherst College “Project Checklist” have been met.
      • The Amherst College Project Manager or the appropriate shop supervisor should review this obligatory form with the contractor at the pre-construction meeting to verify that all requirements have been met.

    Hazardous Energy Control Evaluation

     
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