Environmental Health & Safety

Chemical Hygiene Plan


January 2010
Responsibilities
Employee Training 

Purpose:

This Chemical Hygiene Plan is intended to provide necessary work practice policies, general procedures and information to all laboratory users such that a safe work environment exists. This plan is specifically concerned with use and handling of potentially hazardous chemicals and processes found in the laboratories.

Scope:

All departments utilizing chemicals, academic laboratories, hazardous material storage spaces, photographic darkrooms, hazardous material Satellite Accumulation Areas (SAA), and Main Accumulation Areas (MAA).

Introduction:

This Plan is prepared to comply with the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standard, 29 CFR 1910.1450, Appendix I,"OSHA Lab Safety Standard, Occupational exposure to hazardous chemicals in laboratories". This Plan also includes requirements for training, medical consultation and examinations, hazard identification, personal protective equipment, including respirator use and record keeping.

Responsibilities:

College PresidentThe College President has given oversight responsibility and for Campus health and safety compliance to the Dean of Faculty and to the Treasurer
Dean of Faculty and Treasurer
  • The Dean of Faculty and the Treasurer have directed compliance responsibility to Administrative and Academic Departments, Faculty, and Staff.
Director of Facilities Planning and Management

The Director of Facilities Planning and Management has the direct responsibility for chemical hygiene within the College and provides continuing support for efforts to improve the Campus safety and health.

Environmental Health and Safety Officer

The Environmental Health and Safety Officer shall exercise the authority to identify and minimize dangers to all laboratory workers, the community, and the environment. The Environmental Health and Safety Officer has the authority to suspend operations which do not conform to health and safety practices required by the Chemical Hygiene Plan. The duties of the Environmental Health and Safety Officer include: 

  1. Review and approve the operation, acquisition, and maintenance of fume hoods, emergency safety (drench) showers, eye washes, and fire extinguishers in all laboratories where chemicals are used and handled.
  2. Provide technical expertise to the laboratory community with regard to safety and health issues and also to direct inquiries to appropriate resources.
  3. Ensure that Departments develop and implement standard operating procedures for the handling and storage of hazardous materials and hazardous waste.
  4. Ensure that Departments maintain appropriately label, store, and dispose of hazardous materials and hazardous waste.
  5. Ensure that Department laboratory workers engaged in the use of hazardous materials are properly trained prior to working in any laboratory.
  6. Conduct annual inspections of laboratories and chemical storage areas with the Chemical Hygiene Committee and to provide inspection forms to Principal Investigators to conduct their own periodic inspections.
  7. Write-up and distribute inspection results to Departments along with recommendations and provide follow-up actions.
  8. Coordinate Department health and safety training sessions. These sessions shall include hazardous material, hazardous waste, and laboratory safety topics.
  9. Review Department procedures for the use, disposal, spill prevention,cleanup, and decontamination of extremely hazardous chemicals and substances.
  10. Investigate all reports of laboratory hazard incidents and chemical spills to prevent re occurrence.
  11. Ensure that hazardous waste generated on campus is handled and disposed of in accordance with the Department of Transportation (DOT), the Occupational Health and Safety Administration (OSHA), the Commonwealth of Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requirements.
Chemical Hygiene Officer
The Chemical Hygiene Officer shall exercise the authority to identify and minimize the short and long-term dangers to all laboratory workers, the community, and the environment. The Chemical Hygiene Officer has the authority to suspend operations which do not conform to health and safety practices required by the Chemical Hygiene Plan. The duties of the Chemical Hygiene Officer include:
  1. Coordinate the functions of the Chemical Hygiene Committee to evaluate, implement and update the Chemical Hygiene Plan.
  2. Provide technical expertise to the laboratory community with regard to safety and health issues and also to direct inquiries to appropriate resources.
  3. Ensure that Departments develop and implement standard operating procedures for the handling and storage of hazardous materials and hazardous waste.
  4. Ensure that Departments maintain appropriately label, store, and dispose of hazardous materials and hazardous waste.
  5. Ensure that Department laboratory workers engaged in the use of hazardous materials are properly trained prior to working in any laboratory.
  6. Conduct annual inspections of laboratories and chemical storage areas with the Chemical Hygiene Committee and to provide inspection forms to Principal investigators to conduct their own periodic inspections.
  7. Write-up and distribute inspection results to Departments along with recommendations and provide follow-up actions.
  8. Coordinate Department health and safety training sessions. These sessions shall include hazardous material, hazardous waste, and laboratory safety topics.
  9. Review Department procedures for the use, disposal, spill prevention,cleanup, and decontamination of extremely hazardous chemicals and substances.
  10. Investigate all reports of laboratory hazard incidents and chemical spills to prevent re occurrence.
  11. Ensure that hazardous waste generated on campus is handled and disposed of in accordance with the Department of Transportation (DOT), the Occupational Health and Safety Administration (OSHA), the Commonwealth of Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requirements.
The Chemical Hygiene Committee

The Chemical Hygiene Committee shall:

  1. Periodically update the Safety Committee with respect to safety issues on the campus.
  2. Periodically review and update the Chemical Hygiene Plan.
  3. Participate in annual inspections of laboratories with the Chemical Hygiene Officer and follow-up visits to laboratories not meeting initial compliance.
  4. Ensure that appropriate controls are available to protect laboratory workers.
  5. Elevate unresolved chemical safety issues to the College Administration.
Department Chair

The Department Chair is responsible for chemical safety in the department and should understand the goals of the Chemical Hygiene Plan.The Department Chair shall ensure the:

  1. Completion of an annual inventory of all chemicals in department storage areas and laboratories.
  2. Routine identification of expired and unusable chemicals and their proper disposal.
  3. Maintenance of Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) for chemicals.
  4. Ensure that hazardous material and safety training of all laboratory workers occurs.
  5. Maintenance of training records for laboratory workers.
  6. Routine inspections of all laboratories and file maintenance of completed inspection forms.
  7. Purchase and use of safety equipment in department laboratories.
  8. Notification of the Chemical Hygiene Officer of creation or closing of laboratories.
  9. Development of operating procedures and policies for the handling and disposal of hazardous material used in each laboratories.
  10. Enforcement and disciplinary procedures to ensure compliance wit hall applicable local, state, and federal regulations, and with Amherst College policy.
Principal Investigators and Laboratory Supervisors
Principal Investigators and Laboratory Supervisors have the primary responsibility for chemical hygiene in research or teaching laboratories. they shall ensure the:
  1. Implementation of the procedures and requirements of the Chemical Hygiene Plan.
  2. Completion of safety and hazardous chemical training of laboratory workers
  3. Completion of routine laboratory inspections.
  4. Reporting of all laboratory safety incidents to the Chemical Hygiene Officer and the Environmental Health and Safety Officer.
  5. Completion of an annual chemical inventory.
  6. Inclusion of Chemical Hygiene Plan compliance in grant proposals.
  7. Development of operating procedures and policies for the handling and disposal of hazardous material used in each laboratories.
Laboratory Employees, Guests, Users, and Visitors

All laboratory Employees, Guests, Users, and Visitors shall:

  1. Follow procedures and guidelines of the Chemical Hygiene Plan and any department or Amherst College standard operating guidelines.
  2. Report any unsafe working conditions, faulty fume hoods, or emergency/safety equipment to the laboratory supervisor or principal investigator, the Chemical Hygiene Officer and the Environmental Health and Safety Officer.
  3. Report any hazardous incidents to the laboratory supervisor or principal investigator, the Chemical Hygiene Officer and the Environmental Health and Safety Officer.
Employee Training

As required by OSHA, Amherst College must provide each employee working in a laboratory with the health and safety information appropriate for the type of facility. The training must be provided at the time of the employee's initial introduction into the facility and/or program where work involving chemicals will be performed.

  1. The College shall annually verify knowledge of training by the administration of a multiple choice assessment or an annual refresher provided by the Office of Environmental Health and Safety, the Chemical Hygiene Officer or the Principle Investigator of the facility.
  2. The Employee shall be able to identify the location and update procedures for the Amherst College Chemical Hygiene Plan.
  3. The Employee in the laboratory shall be familiar with
  • Material Saftey Data Sheets (MSDS)
  • Signs and symptoms of chemical exposure
  • Hazardous waste containment, disposal and inspection
  • Emergency procedures for chemical spills, fires, medical emergencies and other facility related abnormalities.
  • Doors to laboratories shall be locked when facilities are not occupied and unless permission is granted by the Principle Investigator.

Control Method Criteria

Identification of Potential Hazards

Everyone on Campus is responsible for recognizing potential hazards in their work areas. This responsibility requires understanding and familiarity with processes, maintenance of chemical and physical inventories, and periodic review of activities in the work area. Departments shall also review existing control methods.

Hazard Identification

Chemical Labels
Chemical labels on original containers shall have the following information:
  1. The common name of the chemical
    • abbreviations and chemical symbols are no longer permitted as idenitification and the use of same could result in a citation or nitce of non-compliance.
  2. The name of the company supplying the chemical
  3. A hazard warning indicating the health or safety hazard corrosiveness, carcinogenicity, water reactivity, flammability, and target organs.
  4. Dispensing of chemicals into approved, compatible portable containers requires that the containers must be labeled with the full name of the chemical.
  5. Chemical container labeling will be assessed in the routine inspections of laboratories storage areas by the Chemical Hygiene Officer and Departments during their inspections. Questions on the use and type of containers shall be referred to the Chemical Hygiene Office, Principal Investigator or Environmental Health and Safety.
  6. The contents of unlabeled chemical containers will be disposed of in accordance with the Commonwealth of Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection and the Amherst College Hazardous Waste Management Policy. It should be noted that unlabeled chemical containers require costly analysis prior to disposal which can be avoided if labels are properly maintained. Chemicals having to be identified by analysis will be paid for by the department from which the bottle was obtained.
  • Any chemicals received shall be inspected by the receiving Department for correct labeling and rejected back to the supplier if the labeling is improper.
Chemical Inventory

 

  1. Each department is responsible for developing and maintaining an accurate inventory of all chemicals used and stored within the department. Under the Commonwealth of Massachusetts Right-to-Know statute, the inventory of each department must be reported to the Chemical Hygiene Officer every six months for transmission to local authorities.
  2. Amherst College utilizes the Vertere Chemical Inventory System, which is updated on a weekly basis. Benefits of this system also include the possibility of sharing chemicals between laboratories to minimize cost of purchase and amount of waste.
  3. The Chemical Hygiene officer or their designee shall maintain a master inventory of the all chemicals and their storage locations used on campus.
Material Safety Sheets(MSDS)

Material Safety Data Sheets are required to be supplied for each shipment of a chemical to this campus. The master copy of the MSDS sheet shall be maintained in each Department office ordering, storing,or using chemicals.

A copy of MSDS sheets shall be filed in the laboratory where the chemical is actually used. These MSDS sheets shall be available 24hours a day, in case of emergency.
  • Biology Main office
  • Chemistry Main Office
  • Physical Plant Training Room
Researchers should review the MSDS sheet prior to use of a chemical. Chemicals identified as trade secrets by the College shall be identified as such, but shall require documentation stored in a place accessible to the user in case of emergency.
Manufacturers including Colleges and Universities who formulate and market chemical substances inside the United States and/or wish to import or export these chemical substances outside the United States must comply with Toxic Substances Control Act

Chemical Hazard Classes and Definitions

This section presents criteria to classify the type and degree of chemical hazard associated with chemicals.

Carcinogens

Any chemical which fits any one of the following:

  1. Is identified or described as a carcinogen in the MSDS or on the label.
  2. Is regulated by OSHA as a carcinogen.
  3. Is listed under the category known to be carcinogens or reasonably anticipated to be carcinogenic in the Annual Report of Carcinogens published by the National Toxicology Program (NTP).
  4. Is listed under Group 1 Carcinogenic to humans, Group 2A or 2B by the International Agency for Research on Cancer Monographs (IARC).
Chemical Having Acutely High Toxicity
Any chemical which fits any one of the following:
  1. Is identified or described as highly toxic in the MSDS or on the label.
  2. Meets the OSHA definition of highly toxic:
    • The median lethal dose (LD50) is equal to or less than 50 mg/kg of body weight when administered orally to rats.
    • The median lethal dose (LD50) is equal to or less than 200 mg/kg of body weight when administered by continuous contact for 24 hours (or less if death occurs within 24 hours) with the bare skin of rabbits.
    • The median lethal concentration (LD 50) in air is equal to or less than 200 parts per million (ppm) by volume or less of gas or vapor, or equal to or less than 2 mg per liter or less of mist, fume, or dust, when administered by continuous inhalation for 1 hour (or less if death occurs within 1 hour) to rats.
  3. The Threshold Limit Value (TLV) or Permissible Exposure Level (PEL) is equal to or less than 5 ppm or 5 milligrams per m3.
  4. The median tolerance limit is equal to or less than 10 ppm by weight of material in water, or the median aquatic lethal concentration is equal to or less than 10 mg/L of material, when administered for 96 hours to a medium sensitivity warm water or cold water species of fish.
  5. Is identified or described in the medical or industrial hygiene literature as being acutely toxic.
Combustible Liquids

A liquid having a flash point at or above 100 EF (38.7 EC) and below 140EF (60 EC).

This class is subdivided as follows:
  1. Class II is a liquid having a flash point at or above 100E F (38.7 EC) and below 140 E F (60 EC).
  2. Class IIIA is a liquid having a flash point at or above 140E F (60 EC) and below 200 E F (93.4 E C).
  3. Class IIIB is a liquid having a flash point at or above 200E F (93.4 EC).
Contact Hazards

Any chemical which fits any of the following:

  1. Is identified or described as an allergen or sensitizer in the MSDS or on the label.
  2. Is identified or described in the medical or industrial hygiene literature as an allergen or sensitizer.
  3. In the experience of the laboratory supervisor or Principal Investigator.
Corrosive Chemical
Any chemical which fits any one of the following:
  1. Is identified or described in the MSDS or on the label as corrosive.
  2. Is identified by the DOT (49 CFR 173) as corrosive. Meets the EPA (40 CFR 261.22) definition of corrosive.
  3. An aqueous solution and has a pH less than or equal to 2 or greater than or equal to 12.5.
  4. A liquid and corrodes steel at a rate greater than 6.35 mm per year at a test temperature of 55 degrees C (130 degrees F).
  5. Meets the OSHA definition of corrosive: A chemical that causes visible destruction of, or irreversible alteration in living tissue by chemical action at the site of contact.
  6. In the experience of the laboratory supervisor or Principal Investigator is known or found to be corrosive.

Chemical Hygiene Officer - Amherst College employee designated by the College who is qualified by experience and training to provide technical guidance and assistance in accordance with the requirements of the Chemical Hygiene Plan, contained herein. The Chemical Hygience officer here after referred to as the CHO, in cooperation with the Environmental Health & Safety Manager, shall implement the Chemical Hygiene Plan (CHP) in accordance with the requirements of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA).
 

Flammable Liquid - A liquid having a flash point below 100EF or 38.7 EC with a vapor pressure less than 40 psi at 100 EF is designated a Class I liquid with subclasses as follows:

  • Class IA - A liquid having a flash point below 73 E F (22.8EC) and having a boiling point below 100 E F (38.7 EC).
  • Class IB - A liquid having a flash point below 73 E F (22.8EC) and with a boiling point at or above 100 E F (38.7 EC).
  • Class IC - A liquid having a flash point at or above 73 EF (22.8 EC) and below 100 E F (38.7 EC).

Hazardous Material - A product, waste or combination of substances which because of its quantity, concentration, physical, chemical, toxic, radioactive, or infectious characteristics, may reasonably pose a significant, actual or potential hazard yo human health, safety, welfare, or the environment when improperly treated, stored, transported, used, disposed of, or otherwise managed. Hazardous materials include, without limitation, synthetic organic chemicals, petroleum products, heavy metals, radioactive or infectious materials, and all substances defined as "toxic" or "hazardous" under MGL Chapters 21C and 21E using the Massachusetts Oil and Hazardous Material List in 310 CMR 40.

Hazardous Waste - Byproducts of society that can pose a substantial or potential hazard to human health or the environment when improperly managed. Possessess at least one of four characteristics (ignitability, corrosiveness, reactivity or toxicity), or appears in the EPA 40 CFR 261, and DEP 310 CMR 30, Occupational Health and Safety (OSHA) 29 CFR, or Department of Transportation (DOT) 49 CFR.

Laboratory - Any facility (area or room) at the College that utilizes or stores chemicals. Under the requirements of OSHA, the term laboratory shall apply to Biology, Chemistry, Geology, Physics and Psychology rooms as well as darkrooms, photography, print shops and other similar locations where chemicals are stored or used.

Laboratory Scale - The use of chemical substances in small volume, sufficient in quantity to complete experimentation, but small enough to minimize waste stream disposal.

Laser Safety Officer - Amherst College employee designated by the College who is qualified by experience and training in the area of laser operation and safety. The Laser Safety Officer (LSO) in cooperation with the Radiation Safety Use Committee will serve as technical support for faculty, staff and student or issues of laser health and safety in accordance with the requirements of the Massachusetts Department of Public Health (DPH) and the Nuclear Radiation Committee (NRC).

Physical Hazard- Chemical(s) for which there is evidence to support that the material could cause a personal hazard. A compressed gas, explosive, flammable, peroxide and/or water reactive materials.

Process Hazards
Process hazards include, but are not limited to, any of the following:
  1. Exothermic reactions
  2. Cryogenic materials or endothermic reactions
  3. High vacuum or pressure
  4. Electrical hazards
  5. Hazards associated with machinery and tools (e.g. belt guards)
  6. Compressed gases

Radiation Safety Officer - A person so designated by the College who is qualified by experience, training and knowledge or applicable regulations to prvide technical guidance and assistance for Radiation Safety use with the requirements of the Massachusetts Department of Public Health, OSHA and the NRC. The Radiation Safety Officer shall support the College through the Radiation Safety Use Committee and the Environmental Health & Safety Manager.

Reactive Chemicals
Any chemical which fits any one of the following:

  • Identified or described in the MSDS or on the label as unstable or reactive.
  • Ranked by the NFPA as 3 or 4 for reactivity.
  • Determined by the U. S. DOT (49 CFR 173) as either an oxidizer, an organic peroxide, or an explosive.
  • Determined by the U.S. EPA (40 CFR 261.23) as reactive:
    1. It is normally unstable and readily undergoes violent change without detonating.
    2. It reacts violently with water.
    3. It forms potentially explosive mixtures with water.
    4. When mixed with water, it generates toxic gases, vapors, or fumes in a quantity sufficient to present a danger to human health or the environment.
    5. It is a cyanide or sulfide material which, when exposed to pH conditions between 2 and 12.5, can generate toxic gases, vapors or fumes in a quantity sufficient to present a danger to human health or the environment.
      • It is capable of detonation or explosive reaction if it is subjected to a strong initiating source or if heated under confinement.
      • It is readily capable of detonation or explosive decomposition or reaction at standard temperature and pressure.
  • Meets the OSHA Laboratory Standard Definition of an Unstable - a chemical which in the pure state, or as produced or transported, will vigorously polymerize, decompose, condense, or will become self reactive under conditions of shocks, pressure or temperature.
  • In the experience of the Principal Investigator or the Laboratory Supervisor, is known or found to be reactive with ordinary substances

Reproductive Toxins
Any chemical which fits any of the following:

  1. Is identified or described as a reproductive toxin, mutagen or teratogenin the MSDS or on the label.
  2. Is known or suspected to affect the reproductive capabilities including chromosomal damage (mutations) and effects on fetuses (teratogenesis).
  3. Is identified or described in medical or industrial hygiene literature as a reproductive toxin.

Unknown Toxicity

Any chemical for which there is no known statistically significant study conducted in accordance with accepted scientific principles that establishes its toxicity.

Control Measures for Chemical Use

Hazard Potential

Hazard Review - A Hazard Review must be conducted to determine the hazard potential of the operation.The hazard potential of an operation will determine the type of control measures that must be used to protect the safety and health of the laboratory users.

Types of Control Measures
  1. Engineering controls, such as local exhaust ventilation, reduce or eliminate exposures by modifying the source or reducing the quantity of contaminants released into the air.
  2. Administrative controls include job rotation, work assignment or time periods away from the contaminant, and performing hazardous operations in a safe manner.
  3. Personal protective equipment (PPE) includes respirators, gloves, eye protection, and other protective equipment. PPE is used after engineering and administrative controls have reduced, but not eliminated, the hazards.
Low Hazard Operations
  1. Low hazard operations include work with chemicals that are relatively harmless to slightly toxic, have no potential for uncontrolled process hazards, and staff have previous experience with the type of work.
  2. Low hazard operations require a Clearance Check prior to beginning work.
  3. Observe Standard Laboratory Practices when conducting a low hazard operation:
  • Never store food or beverages in storage areas, refrigerators, glassware, or utensils that are also used for laboratory operations.
  • Do not eat, drink, smoke, chew gum, take medicine, or apply cosmetics in laboratories where chemicals or other hazardous materials (e.g., radioactive or biohazardous materials) are present
  • Mouth pipetting of pipets is prohibited. Always use a pipet bulb or other mechanical pipette filling device.
  • Wash areas of exposed skin well before leaving the laboratory.
  • Remove contaminated personal protective equipment (e.g., lab coats) before leaving the laboratory.
Wear Appropriate Personal Apparel
  1. Confine long hair and loose clothing. Wear shoes at all times in the laboratory. Open-toe sandals and other perforated shoes are not permitted.
  2. It is recommended to wear long-sleeved and longlegs clothing and a lab coat. Jewelry should not be worn that interferes with gloves and other protective clothing or that could come into contact with electrical sources or react with chemicals.
Proper Equipment Use

Use equipment only for its intended purpose.

  1. Inspect equipment or laboratory apparatus for damage before use. Never use damaged equipment such as cracked glassware or equipment with frayed electrical wiring.
  2. Shield or wrap Dewar flasks and other evacuated glassware to contain chemicals and glass fragments should explosion occur.
Transport of Chemicals

The following guidelines will be used when transporting all chemicals within facilities or from building to building. Transportation of chemicals on public ways is not permitted without proper licensing and properly placarded vehicles.

  1. Hand carried chemicals shall be placed in a secondary container or acid carrying bucket with tight fitting covers and shock absorbing material to protect against breakage. Bottles shall be protected from falling or tipping with a Speedi-Dry or similar means.
  2. Wheeled carts used to transport chemicals shall be stable and move smoothly over uneven surfaces without tipping or stopping suddenly, and shall have lipped surfaces that would contain the chemicals if the containers break.
  3. Laboratory employees transporting chemicals must wear splash goggles and a lab coat or apron in case containers break or chemicals are splashed.
  4. Use freight elevators when available. Passenger elevators shall be used only during low-use time periods and only by those who are handling the chemicals. All chemicals shall be placed in a secondary container or acid carrying bucket with tight fitting covers and shock absorbing material to protect against breakage.
  5. Compressed gas cylinders shall be transported with hand trucks only with the cylinder strapped in place. Cylinders shall NEVER be dragged. Keep the cylinder capped until it is used.
Housekeeping
  1. All work areas, including work benches and floors must be kept clean,dry, and uncluttered.
  2. Access to emergency equipment, electrical panels, emergency shutoffs (i.e. gas), fire extinguishers, utility controls, showers, eyewash stations,and laboratory exits must never be blocked. Three square feet is required around each.
Toxic Discharges and Waste Disposal
  1. Deposit chemical wastes in their appropriate, labeled receptacles and follow all other disposal procedures described in this Chemical Hygiene Plan.
  2. Be particularly careful not to release hazardous substances into designated cold or warm rooms, since these facilities have recirculated atmospheres.
  3. Minimize the release of toxic vapors into the laboratory by venting apparatus such as vacuum pumps and distillation columns into local exhaust devices. When especially toxic or corrosive vapors are involved, they should pass through scrubbers prior to being discharged from the local exhaust system. When not utilizing the exhaust hoods, cover sash to a point 6" above work surface to keep the room under negative pressure. Windows and doors to the laboratory should be kept closed when hoods are open to maximize the air flow from the room.
Working Alone After Hours

Employees should avoid working alone, if possible, when conducting research and experiments involving hazardous substances and procedures in accordance with Amherst College Best Management Practices Policy, 17.0.

Undergraduate teaching laboratories: A college representative trained in chemical safety must be present in the laboratory at all times when undergraduate students are conducting experiments.

Honor Students: Honor students who have a need to work alone must receive permission from their advisor prior to working alone.

Research Laboratories: Personnel who have a need to work alone must receive permission from their advisor prior to working alone.

Medium Hazard Operations

Medium Hazard Description:

Medium hazard operations include work with chemicals that are identified as:

  1. Allergen
  2. Cause burns
  3. Corrosive
  4. Flammable
  5. Heavy Metal
  6. Lachrymator
  7. Neurotoxin
  8. Oxidizer
  9. Peroxide or Peroxide forming
  10. Reactive
  11. Sensitizer
  12. Toxic
  13. Unstable
  14. Water Reactive

Observe the following Laboratory Practices in addition to Standard Laboratory Practices for work with medium hazard operations.

  1. Never store food or beverages in storage areas, refrigerators, glassware,or utensils that are also used for laboratory operations.
  2. Do not eat, drink, smoke, chew gum, take medicine, or apply cosmetics in laboratories where chemicals or other hazardous materials (e.g., radioactive or biohazards materials) are present.
  3. Mouth piping of pipettes is prohibited. Always use a pipette bulb or other mechanical pipette filling device.
  4. Wash areas of exposed skin well before leaving the laboratory.
  5. Remove contaminated personal protective equipment (e.g., lab coats) before leaving the laboratory.

Wear Appropriate Personal Apparel

  1. Confine long hair and loose clothing. Wear shoes at all times in the laboratory. Open toe sandals and other perforated shoes are not permitted.
  2. It is recommended to wear long-sleeved and long legged clothing and a lab coat. Jewelry should not be worn that interferes with gloves and other protective clothing or that could come into contact with electrical sources or react with chemicals.

Proper Equipment Use

Use equipment only for its intended purpose.

  1. Inspect equipment or laboratory apparatus for damage before use. Never use damaged equipment such as cracked glassware or equipment with frayed electrical wiring.
  2. Shield or wrap Dewar flasks and other evacuated glassware to contain chemicals and glass fragments should explosion occur.

Transport of Chemicals

The following guidelines will be used when transporting all chemicals within facilities or from building to building. Transportation of chemicals on public ways is not permitted without proper licensing and proper vehicles.

  1. Hand carried chemicals shall be placed in a secondary container or acid carrying bucket with tight fitting covers and shock absorbing material to protect against breakage. Bottles shall be protected from falling or tipping with a Speedi-Dry or similar means.
  2. Wheeled carts used to transport chemicals shall be stable and move smoothly over uneven surfaces without tipping or stopping suddenly, and shall have lipped surfaces that would contain the chemicals if the containers break.
  3. Laboratory employees transporting chemicals must wear splash goggles and a lab coat or apron in case containers break or chemicals are splashed.
  4. Use freight elevators when available. Passenger elevators shall be used only during low-use time periods and only by those who are handling the chemicals. All chemicals shall be placed in a secondary container or acid carrying bucket with tight fitting covers and shock absorbing material to protect against breakage.
  5. Compressed gas cylinders shall be transported with hand trucks only with the cylinder strapped in place. Cylinders shall NEVER be dragged. Keep the cylinder capped until it is used.

Housekeeping

  1. All work areas, including work benches and floors must be kept clean, dry, and uncluttered.
  2. Access to emergency equipment, electrical panels, emergency shutoffs (i.e. gas), fire extinguishers, utility controls, showers, eyewash stations,and laboratory exits must never be blocked. Three square feet is required around each.

Toxic Discharges and Waste Disposal

  1. Deposit chemical wastes in their appropriate, labeled receptacles and follow all other disposal procedures described in this Chemical Hygiene Plan.
  2. Be particularly careful not to release hazardous substances into designated cold or warm rooms, since these facilities have reticulated atmospheres.
  3. Minimize the release of toxic vapors into the laboratory by venting apparatus such as vacuum pumps and distillation columns into local exhaust devices. When especially toxic or corrosive vapors are involved,they should pass through scrubbers prior to being discharged from the local exhaust system. When not utilizing the exhaust hoods, cover sash to a point 6" above work surface to keep the room under negative pressure. Windows and doors to the laboratory should be kept closed when hoods are open to maximize the air flow from the room.

Working Alone after Hours

Employees should avoid working alone, if possible, when conducting research and experiments involving hazardous substances and procedures in accordance with Amherst College Best Management Practices Policy, 17.0.

  1. Undergraduate teaching laboratories: A college representative trained in chemical safety must be present in the laboratory at all times when undergraduate students are conducting experiments.
  2. Honor Students: Honor students who have a need to work alone must receive permission from their advisor prior to working alone. If the student has approval from their advisor to work alone after normal working hours,they shall contact Amherst College Police (x 2291) to make them aware of their presence in the facility. Amherst College Police shall make periodic checks of any laboratory having lone workers. Students working alone should plan a route of escape in case of an emergency. Students working alone should also notify a responsible person about their location and anticipated time of arrival at home or elsewhere. Those persons should be asked to contact the Amherst College Police at 542-2291 within a reasonable time after which the person does not return.
  3. Research Laboratories: Personnel with special need to work alone after hours shall contact Amherst College Police (x 2291) to make them aware of their presence in the facility. Amherst College Police shall make periodic checks of any laboratory having lone workers. Laboratory personnel should plan a route of escape in case of an emergency. Personnel working alone shall also notify a responsible person about their location and anticipated time of arrival at home or elsewhere. Those persons should be asked to contact the Amherst College Police at 542-2291 within a reasonable time after which the person did not return.

Unattended Operations

  1. All chemical containers, including reaction vessels and process equipment,must be labeled.
  2. An emergency phone number for the responsible person must be posted on the laboratory door.
  3. A sign stating Let Run@ must be posted near the process.
  4. The laboratory light must be kept on at all times for ease of Public Safety identification. If the door to the laboratory is not equipped with a visor panel, the door shall be left open for police inspection.
  5. Provide for the containment of toxic substances in the event of failure of a utility service, such as cooling water. Additional controls are needed for particularly hazardous chemicals.

Engineering Controls

  1. Use an appropriate laboratory hood if material is volatile or the process may produce aerosols.
  2. Use appropriate storage containers for raw materials and waste materials (e.g., approved metal flammable safety cans and flammable storage cabinets).

Administrative Controls

  1. Have an appropriate Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) available for chemicals and procedures. Ensure that all laboratory users are familiar with SOPs.
  2. Use appropriate hand protection and wash hands and any other potentially exposed skin immediately after working with chemicals.
  3. Never eat, drink, smoke, chew gum, apply cosmetics, take medicine, or store food where chemicals are used.
  4. Ensure all chemical containers are appropriately labeled.
  5. If possible, cover work surfaces with absorbent plastic backed paper to simplify clean-up of any spilled chemicals.
  6. Have an appropriate waste disposal plan for waste chemicals.
  7. Have an appropriate spill plan for chemicals.
  8. If required by Hazard Review, conduct exposure monitoring and medical consultations.

Personal Protective Equipment

  1. Glove material must be compatible with chemical in use.
  2. Laboratory coats with long sleeves shall be worn buttoned (snaps are preferred).
  3. Wear appropriate safety goggles when handling particularly hazardous chemicals. Safety glasses with side shields may not appropriate for protection with some chemicals.

High Hazard Operations

High hazard operations include work with particularly hazardous chemicals that are identified as:

  1. Carcinogens
  2. Reproductive Toxins
  3. Highly Toxic
  4. Extremely Toxic
  5. Fatal
  6. Poison
  7. Severe allergens
  8. Causes severe burns
  9. Explosive
  10. Pyrophoric
  11. Strong oxidizers
  12. Strong sensitizers

Observe the following Laboratory Practices in addition to Standard Laboratory Practices for work with high hazard operations.

  1. Never store food or beverages in storage areas, refrigerators, glassware,or utensils that are also used for laboratory operations.
  2. Do not eat, drink, smoke, chew gum, take medicine, or apply cosmetics in laboratories where chemicals or other hazardous materials (e.g., radioactive or biohazardous materials) are present.
  3. Mouth pipetting of pipettes is prohibited. Always use a pipette bulb or other mechanical pipette filling device.
  4. Wash areas of exposed skin well before leaving the laboratory.
  5. Remove contaminated personal protective equipment (e.g., lab coats) before leaving the laboratory.

Wear Appropriate Personal Apparel

  1. Confine long hair and loose clothing. Wear shoes at all times in the laboratory. Open toe sandals and other perforated shoes are not permitted.
  2. It is recommended to wear long-sleeved and long legged clothing and a lab coat. Jewelry should not be worn that interferes with gloves and other protective clothing or that could come into contact with electrical sources or react with chemicals.

Proper Equipment Use

  1. Use equipment only for its intended purpose.
  2. Inspect equipment or laboratory apparatus for damage before use. Never use damaged equipment such as cracked glassware or equipment with frayed electrical wiring.
  3. Shield or wrap Dewar flasks and other evacuated glassware to contain chemicals and glass fragments should explosion occur.

Transport of Chemicals

  1. The following guidelines will be used when transporting all chemicals within facilities or from building to building. Transportation of chemicals on public ways is not permitted without proper licensing and proper vehicles.
  2. Hand carried chemicals shall be placed in a secondary container or a carrying bucket with tight fitting covers and shock absorbing material to protect against breakage. Bottles shall be protected from falling or tipping with a Speedi-Dry or similar means.
  3. Wheeled carts used to transport chemicals shall be stable and move smoothly over uneven surfaces without tipping or stopping suddenly, and shall have lipped surfaces that would contain the chemicals if the containers break.
  4. Laboratory employees transporting chemicals must wear splash goggles and a lab coat or apron in case containers break or chemicals are splashed.
  5. Use freight elevators when available. Passenger elevators shall be used only during low-use time periods and only by those who are handling the chemicals. All chemicals shall be placed in a secondary container or acid carrying bucket with tight fitting covers and shock absorbing material to protect against breakage
  6. Compressed gas cylinders shall be transported with hand trucks only with the cylinder strapped in place. Cylinders shall NEVER be dragged. Keep the cylinder capped until it is used.

Housekeeping

  1. All work areas, including work benches and floors must be kept clean,dry, and uncluttered.
  2. Access to emergency equipment, electrical panels, emergency shutoffs (i.e. gas), fire extinguishers, utility controls, showers, eyewash stations,and laboratory exits must never be blocked. Three square feet is required around each.
  3. Toxic Discharges and Waste Disposal
    • Deposit chemical wastes in their appropriate, labeled receptacles and follow all other disposal procedures described in this Chemical Hygiene Plan.
    • Be particularly careful not to release hazardous substances into designated cold or warm rooms, since these facilities have reticulated atmospheres.
    • Minimize the release of toxic vapors into the laboratory by venting apparatus such as vacuum pumps and distillation columns into local exhaust devices. When especially toxic or corrosive vapors are involved,they should pass through scrubbers prior to being discharged from the local exhaust system. When not utilizing the exhaust hoods, cover sash to a point 6" above work surface to keep the room under negative pressure. Windows and doors to the laboratory should be kept closed when hoods are open to maximize the air flow from the room.

Working Alone after Hours

Employees should avoid working alone, if possible, when conducting research and experiments involving hazardous substances and procedures in accordance with Amherst College Best Management Practices Policy, 17.0.

  1. Undergraduate teaching laboratories: A college representative trained in chemical safety must be present in the laboratory at all times when undergraduate student are conducting experiments.
  2. Honor Students: Honor students who have a need to work alone must receive permission from their advisor prior to working alone. If the student has approval from their advisor to work alone after normal working hours,they shall contact Amherst College Police (x 2291) to make them aware of their presence in the facility. Amherst College Police shall make periodic checks of any laboratory having lone workers. Students working alone should plan a route of escape in case of an emergency. Students working alone should also notify a responsible person about their location and anticipated time of arrival at home or elsewhere. Those persons should be asked to contact the Amherst College Police at 542-2291 within a reasonable time after which the person does not return.
  3. Research Laboratories:
    Personnel with special need to work alone after hours shall contact Amherst College Police (x 2291) to make them aware of their presence in the facility. Amherst College Police shall make periodic checks of any laboratory having lone workers. Laboratory personnel should plan a route of escape in case of an emergency. Personnel working alone shall also notify a responsible person about their location and anticipated time of arrival at home or elsewhere. Those persons should be asked to contact the Amherst College Police at 542-2291 within a reasonable time after which the person did not return.

Unattended Operations

  1. All chemical containers, including reaction vessels and process equipment,must be labeled.
  2. An emergency phone number for the responsible person must be posted on the laboratory door.
  3. A sign stating "Let Run" must be posted near the process.
  4. The laboratory light must be kept on at all times for ease of Public Safety identification. If the door to the laboratory is not equipped with a visor panel, the door shall be left open for police inspection.
  5. Provide for the containment of toxic substances in the event of failure of a utility service, such as cooling water. Additional controls are needed for particularly hazardous chemicals.

Engineering Controls

  1. Use an appropriate laboratory hood if material is volatile or the process may produce aerosols.
  2. Use appropriate storage containers for raw materials and waste materials (e.g., approved metal flammable safety cans and flammable storage cabinets).

Administrative Controls

Have an appropriate Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) available for chemicals and procedures. Ensure that all laboratory users are familiar with SOPs.

  1. Use appropriate hand protection and wash hands and any other potentially exposed skin immediately after working with chemicals.
  2. Never eat, drink, smoke, chew gum, apply cosmetics, take medicine, or store food where chemicals are used.
  3. Ensure all chemical containers are appropriately labeled.
  4. If possible, cover work surfaces with absorbent plastic backed paper to simplify clean-up of any spilled chemicals.
  5. Have an appropriate waste disposal plan for waste chemicals.
  6. Have an appropriate spill plan for chemicals.
  7. If required by Hazard Review, conduct exposure monitoring and medical consultations.

Personal Protective Equipment

  1. Glove material must be compatible with chemical in use.
  2. Laboratory coats with long sleeves shall be worn buttoned (snaps are preferred).
  3. Wear appropriate safety goggles when handling particularly hazardous chemicals. Safety glasses with side shields may not appropriate for protection with some chemicals.

Engineering Controls

General Laboratory Ventilation

General laboratory ventilation shall comply with the ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamental Guidelines, prudent laboratory practices, state building codes, and natural mechanical codes.

  1. General laboratory ventilation shall operate continuously to provide a source of air for input to local ventilation devices ("makeup air"). In general, a change of room air four to twelve times per hour is adequate.
  2. Doors to laboratories shall be kept closed as containment of hazardous materials is partially dependent on proper balance of air flow.
    Disruption of the positive pressure in the corridor by a laboratory door opened for an extended period of time may result in transmission of airborne materials from the laboratory to the corridor. Laboratory fume hoods will also function more efficiently when the door is kept closed.
  3. General laboratory ventilation shall not be relied on for protection from toxic substances. The ventilation system shall direct air flow into the laboratory from non laboratory areas and out to the exterior of the building.

Local Exhaust Ventilation

  1. Local exhaust ventilation systems shall be used after every effort has been made to control the contaminant by isolation, a change in the process, or by substitution of a less harmful material.
  2. At a minimum, all work involving hazardous materials must be conducted in a laboratory fume hood.
  3. The following activities must have approved local ventilation.
  • Vacuum pump exhausts.
  • Gas chromatograph exit ports.
  • Liquid chromatography.
  • Distillation columns

Fume Hoods

Refer to Section XII Resources for design and failure protocols.

Fume Hood Classification System for Authorized Use

Category A
  1. Chemicals or process reaction byproducts which are considered to be carcinogens, reproductive toxins, allergens, or highly toxic and the breathing zone air concentration (if no hood is present) exceeds the substances PEL, TLV or other safe limit.
  2. The ventilation flow rate must be at least 100 feet per minute (fpm),but no greater than 125 fpm with sash wide open.
Category B
  1. Chemicals or process reaction byproducts which are considered to be carcinogens, reproductive toxins, allergens, highly toxic and the breathing zone air concentration (if no hood is present) does not exceed the substances PEL, TLV, or other safe limit.
  2. Chemicals or process reaction byproducts which are not considered to be carcinogens, reproductive toxins, or highly toxic, but the PEL, TLV or other safe limit, is less than 100 ppm.
  3. The ventilation flow rate must be at least 80 fpm, but no greater than 125 fpm with sash wide open.
Category C
  1. Not suitable for use with carcinogens, reproductive toxins, allergens or highly toxic materials.
    • The ventilation flow rate is at least 60 fpm but no greater than 125fpm with sash wide open.
  2. Work Practices
    • The user shall establish work practices that minimize emissions and employee exposure.
  3. The following list concerns only those work practices related directly to hood performance and applies only when hazardous materials are to be used in the hood:
    • The worker shall not lean into the hood so that his/her head is inside the plane of the hood face without adequate respiratory and personal protection, except for setup work or hood maintenance.
    • Equipment in the hood shall not block airflow to slots in the baffle.
    • Equipment that might be a source of emission (including in case of breakage) shall not be placed closer than 6 inches from the plane of the hood face.
    • Flammable liquids shall not be stored permanently in the cabinet under the hood unless that cabinet meets the requirements of ANSI/NFPA 30 and 45 for flammable liquid storage. Storage of flammable or otherwise hazardous materials (including compressed gas cylinders) in the active work areas of the laboratory shall be kept to a minimum. Normally, a one-or two-day supply shall be sufficient. Fume hood should not be used for the storage of chemicals or hazardous waste.
    • The hood sash or panels shall not be removed except for setup work without hazardous chemicals in the hood.
    • The hood sash or panels shall be closed to the maximum position possible while still allowing comfortable working conditions.
    • A hood that is more than 10% below standard in exhaust volume shall not be used unless its condition is labeled and the maximum sash opening marked clearly. All deficiencies with fume hood performance shall be reported to the Physical Plant by the Principal Investigator or the Chemical Hygiene Officer.
  4. Each hood shall be posted with a notice giving the date of the last periodic field test. If the hood failed the performance test, it shall be taken out of service until repaired, or posted with a restricted use notice. The notice shall state the partially closed sash position necessary and any other requisite precautions concerning the type of work and materials permitted or prohibited.
  5. Each laboratory hood shall be evaluated for catastrophe potential in terms of the maximum credible accident, involving the properties and quantities of the chemicals used and the nature of the operations. Examples of such a catastrophe would be:
    • Explosion
    • Violent ejection of life threatening chemicals into the room
    • Overheating of the exhaust duct
  6. If the potential for a catastrophe is present, special designs to prevent the event or limit the consequences should be implemented. Examples of such provisions would be:
    • Special hood design
    • Fire or explosion suppressing systems
    • Redundant installed spare exhaust blowers
    • Emergency power supply
Fume Hood Failure Procedures

If it is noted by the users that their fume hood is not drawing enough air, they shall:

  1. Immediately stop all work in the hood.
  2. Report the problem to:
  • Their supervisor
  • Physical Plant
  • Environmental Health and Safety
  1. Notify others in the area and on additional shifts that the fume hood is not operating and cannot be used. This may be done by posting the hood with a sign. This must be strictly enforced.
  2. Seal off any opened/exposed containers of chemical or radioactive materials currently under the hood, or remove any supplies or equip­ment which may be required as access to hood may be denied due to repair.
  3. Work with the supervisor and other departments to either arrange for the use of other fume hoods which are operating properly or postpone work until repairs are made.
  4. The fume hood must not be returned to use until retested and approved for use by the Chemical Hygiene Officer.

Glove Boxes

Glove boxes and glove bags are isolation units used for handling highly toxic chemicals and carcinogens. These units are negative pressure, so air leakage is into the unit. The ventilation rate must be at least2 volume changes per hour and pressure at least 0.5 inches of water.

  1. Some units are positive pressure, so there is the potential for leakage into the laboratory.
  2. Positive pressure units are used when protection from atmospheric moisture or oxygen is required. Never use toxic chemicals in a positive pressure unit.
  3. These units must be regularly tested for leaks and must have a shut-off valve and pressure gauge installed.
  4. Exhaust air is treated by scrubbing and/or absorption prior to release into the regular exhaust system.

Biological Safety Cabinets

See Section XII Resources for Biological Safety Cabinet specifications.

Biological Safety Cabinet Requirements

  1. Class I or II cabinets shall be used for Biosafety Level 2 work if the aerosolization potential increases the risk of exposure and disease to unacceptable levels.
  2. Class I or II cabinets must be used for Biosafety Level 3 work all manipulations of infectious materials.
  3. Class III containment hoods must be used for all procedures and activities of Biosafety Level 4 work.

Certification

  1. Biological safety cabinets shall be used only after certification has been completed by a qualified outside contractor.
  2. Biological safety cabinets shall be recertified at least yearly, or as deemed necessary by the hazards involved.
  3. All biological safety cabinets must also be recertified if relocated,repaired or if HEPA filters are changed. If filters are to be changed,it will require formaldehyde decontamination of the cabinet. To facilitate this process, all vented Type I, II, and III cabinets must be installed with seal-tight dampers to prevent premature escape and contamination of the formaldehyde gas as it will require the complete shutdown of the fume hood exhaust system.

Chemical Storage

General Requirements
  1. Every chemical will have an identifiable storage place and must be returned to that location after use.
  2. A storage scheme must be developed in each chemical storage area to ensure the segregation of incompatible. An effort must be made to isolate particularly flammable, reactive, and toxic materials. Because of the risk of placing incompatible materials side by side, a storage scheme based solely on alphabetizing is prohibited.
  3. The storage of working containers on bench tops will be mini­mixed to prevent the accidental spilling of chemicals and to reduce the risk of fire.
  4. Compatible chemicals shall be grouped by container size to make it easier to retrieve chemicals and to reduce the possibility of bottle breakage. Large containers shall be stored on lower shelves. Chemicals will not be stored on the floor.
    • Chemical storage in hoods shall be kept to a minimum. Storing containers inside the hood interferes with airflow, reduces the work space, and increases the risk of a spill, fire, or explosion. Where possible, chemicals will be stored in cabinets that vent directly into the fume hood or toxic chemical exhaust system.
    • Labels must be maintained on all stored materials.
    • Stored chemicals should be stored in amber bottles and must not be exposed to direct sunlight or heat.
    • Storage trays shall be used to minimize the spread of a spill.
    • Do not store food in laboratory refrigerators.
    • No flammable liquids are to be stored in household-type refrigerators.
    • All chemical containers left out of storage areas will be checked at the end of each workday. Unneeded items will be returned to chemical areas or stockroom.
    • All chemical containers in the following groups will be dated when they are initially opened:
     
    1. Picrics
    2. Peroxides
    3. Other materials known to deteriorate, or become unstable overtime.
    4. Polymerizers that react violently in polymerization or become hazardous after polymerization
    5. Perchlorates
    6. Peroxidizable materials (aldehydes, ethers, and com­pounds containing benzylic hydrogen atoms, e.g. isopropyl benzene and most alkene, vinyl and vinylidne compounds).
    7. Expiration dates will be assigned to these chemicals. When provided, the manufacturers expiration dates shall be displayed.
    8. Peroxidizable materials must be tested routinely for peroxides. (See the table "Common Peroxide-Forming Chemicals" in Appendix for a more complete list of these chemicals.)
  • When a laboratory is closed or relocated, the laboratory supervisor and Chemical Hygiene Officer will arrange for the removal or safe storage of all hazardous materials remaining in their work area.
  • Appropriate spill-control, cleanup, and emergency equipment must be available wherever chemicals are stored.

Segregation of Incompatible Chemicals

Chemicals must be segregated to prevent mixing of incompatible chemical vapors or liquids in the event that containers break or leak. Chemicals must not be arranged alphabetically or haphazardly in stockrooms or in laboratory work areas. It is acceptable to store solid chemicals alphabetically if hazard classes are segregated. Particular attention must be paid to isolating flammables, air-reactives, peroxidizables, and toxic chemicals.

Special attention must be paid to the following chemicals because of their potential instability:

  1. Inorganic Organic
    9 Nitrates, nitrites, and azides 9 Ether
    9 Perchlorates 9 Azides
    9 Perchloric acid
    9 Peroxides
    9 Phosphorous
    9 Phosphorous pentoxide

Chemical Stockrooms

Stockrooms are areas in facilities in which relatively large quantities of chemicals are stored for laboratory use.

General Requirements for All Stockrooms

  1. Stockroom access must be strictly limited to authorized personnel. All laboratories, preparation rooms, and storeroom/stockrooms must be locked and secured when designated laboratory employees are not present.
  2. A mechanical exhaust ventilation system must be in place and must provide at least 6 air changes per hour. Additional local exhaust may be required if activities such as dispensing take place in the storage area.
  3. Each storage area must have at least one large sink, safety shower, eyewash station, and appropriate fire extinguisher with adequate extinguishing capacity. Emergency equipment shall be located next to the exit door and also within 25 feet of a hazardous area. Emergency equipment cannot be obstructed.
  4. For new facilities, each chemical storage area must have a master control shutoff valve for water, electricity, and gas.
  5. Shelving must be secure and well-braced. The weight limit provided by the manufacturer of the shelving unit must not be exceeded. Other shelving characteristics shall include:
    • Anti-roll lips on all shelves to prevent contain­ers from falling off shelves. Existing shelving otherwise suitable for storage use shall not be replaced. New shelving shall have anti-roll lips.
    • Metal shelves shall be corrosion-resistant.
    • Aisles at least 3 feet between standing shelving
    1. All chemical storerooms and stockrooms must have clearly marked,unobstructed exits.
    2. Chemical stockrooms must be well-lit so that labels can be easily read.
    3. No aisle is permitted to dead end. Aisles must be kept clear of clutter. Material can not be stored in a means of egress.
    4. The environment in stockrooms must be controlled to avoid extremes of temperature and high humidity. Open flames, smoking,humidifiers, and heating units such as space heaters, hot plates and coffee makers are not permitted.
      • Floors must be kept clean and dry. If being cleaned or when a spill has occurred, signs shall be posted to warn of hazard.
      • Wherever toxic chemicals are stored and could be released, self-contained escape respirators or self-contained breathing apparatus must be made available. If all parties have not been trained and fit-tested, they shall evacuate in the case of an emergency.
    5. Flammable Materials Stockrooms
      Flammable materials not currently in use should be isolated in stock­rooms. Storage facilities for flammables must meet the following specifications:
      • The walls, ceilings, and floors of an inside storage room for flammable materials must be constructed of materials having at least a two-hour fire resistance, with the exception of buildings fully equipped with sprinkler systems.
      • All doors between the rooms and the corridors should be self-closing. Smoke activated doors can remain open on magnets, but will close fully when fire alarm sounds.
      • Adequate mechanical ventilation must be provided and controlled from a switch outside the stockroom door. Ventilation should be at floor level since flammable vapors tend to sink.
      • In areas where Class I flammable liquids are stored or dispensed, electrical power, lights, switches, and sockets must be explosion-proof.
      • Fan motors and ventilation equipment motors must be non-sparking.
      • All smoking and lighting of matches are prohibited.
      • An inside storage room meeting all the above specifica­tions and not exceeding 150 square feet in floor area is permitted to contain no more than 2 gallons of flammables per square foot of floor area. Five gallons per square foot are allowed if in addition the room has an automatic sprinkler system.
      • Chemical storage must meet applicable local building and fire codes.

Chemical Storage Outside Stockrooms

The nature of laboratory work calls for a certain amount of chemicals to be on hand for easy access. However, all laboratory employees must limit, as much as possible, the amounts of chemicals stored on bench tops, in hoods under sinks or other exposed areas. When these chemicals are flammable, combustible, reactive, toxic, or corrosive, the following rules will be observed.

Flammables and Combustibles

Legal limits on amounts of flammables, combustibles, reactives, and unstable chemicals in laboratories will be determined and observed for each laboratory.

Flammable Liquids Storage Cabinets

  1. Flammable materials must be stored in cabinets that meet OSHA and National Fire Protection Association specifications that cabinet contents be protected from temperatures exceeding 325 EF for at least 10 minutes, enough time for personnel to evacuate the area.
  2. Quantities of flammables stored shall not exceed the manufacturer's specification for the cabinet
  3. Maximum Container Sizes OSHA and NFPA limit the size of the container for classes of flammable and combustible materials. The more fire-resistant container, the larger it may be. Only certified containers will be used.

Safety Cans for Flammables

Approved portable safety containers shall be used for storing flammable liquids. Flammable liquids in quantities greater than 4 liters (1 gallon) will be...

  1. The names of compressed gases must be prominently posted.
  2. Storage of flammable gases in laboratories is not permitted, except when being used. No more than twice the procedures requirements will be present in the laboratory.
  3. Flammable gas cylinders should be stored in a separate area from other types of compressed gases.
  4. If gases are manifolded or piped to or from equipment, the connections piping and/or tubing shall be compatible with the gases used (i.e. copper and acetylene are incompatible).
  5. Cylinders of incompatible gases must be segre­gated by dist­ance. Cylinders must be grouped by the type of gas (e.g. toxic, corrosive, etc.)
  6. Empty cylinders should be separated from nonempty cylinders and labeled "empty" or "AMT".
  7. All compressed gases must be stored away from direct or localized heat (including radiators, steam pipes, or boilers) in well-ventilated anddry areas and away from areas where heavy items may strike them (e.g., near elevators or service corridors).
  8. All compressed gases, including empty cylinders, must be secured in an upright position with chains, straps or special stands of adequate strength and must be capped when stored or moved.
  9. A hand truck must be available for transporting gas cylinders to and from storage areas.

Flammable and Other Compressed Gases

Oxidizers

Oxidizers must be stored away from incompatible materials such as:

  1. Flammables and combustible materials
  2. Greases
  3. Paper trash binds
  4. Finely divided metals
  5. Organic liquids
  6. Other oxidizers

    1. Nitric acid, sulfuric acid, and perchloric acid shall be stored separately from organic acids in rooms, cabinets, or break-resistant containers and placed in acidic-resistant trays.
    2. Strong oxidizing agents shall be stored and used in glass or other inert containers. Corks and rubber stoppers shall not be used. High energy oxidizers shall be segregated.
    3. Peroxides and chemicals that tend to form peroxides must be stored in airtight containers in a dark,cook and dry place. 
    4. To minimize the rate of decomposition, peroxides and peroxidizable materials shall be stored at the lowest possible temperature consistent with their solubility and freezing point. Liquid peroxide or solutions shall not be stored at or below the temperature at which the peroxide freezes or precipitates,because peroxides in these forms are extremely sensitive to shock and heat.

    Toxic Chemicals

    1. Extremely toxic substances must be stored in unbreakable chemically resistant secondary containers.
    2. Adequate ventilation must be provided in storage areas especially for toxic chemicals that have a high vapor pressure.
    3. All dispensing of these materials must be conducted in a fumehood.

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

General

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) is used after engineering and admin­istrative controls have been put into place, but the potential for exposure to hazardous materials still remain.

  1. PPE includes, but is not limited to protective eyewear, gloves, respirators and clothing.
  2. PPE must be evaluated by the Chemical Hygiene Officer for chemical compatibility and suitability for use with the potential hazards.
  3. Users must be trained in the proper use of PPE. If respiratory protection is required, medical clearance and fit testing are also required.
  4. Laboratory Standard Operating Procedures (Section V.) Must include specific information on the type of PPE required for each hazardous chemical or process.
Requirements

Eye Protection:

  • When an operation or activity has the potential of an eye injury from dust,liquids, impact, glare, or any other foreign object entering the eye.

Face Protection:

  • When an operation or activity has the potential of a face injury from flying objects, chemical splash, or injurious radiation. Eye protection must always be worn under face protection.

Respiratory Protection:

  • When an operation or activity has a potential of harmful concentrations of dusts, fumes, gases, vapors, or radionuclides being present in the work environment.

Hearing Protection:

  • When working in an area designated as a hearing protection area and/or when working near equipment with a noise level of 85 dB or greater.

Hard Hats:

  • When working at or visiting construction sites, designated hard hat areas,or any other area where tools or objects may fall from above.

Safety Shoes:

  • When an operation or activity has the potential of a foot injury from falling and/or rolling objects, from piercing the sole, or from electrical hazards.

Gloves:

  • When an operation or activity has the potential to cut, burn, blister or bruise the hands, especially when working with chemicals, high voltages,metal plates, or pipes.
  • When working with equipment used for lifting or excavating, or working on high voltages that require rubber gloves.

Safety Belts:

  • When working from an aerial lift, riding in a man-lift or working on any unguarded raised platform or roof.

Safety Harness:

  • When working in Confined Spaces or elevations higher than 6 feet in height. 

Disposable Clothing:

  • When an operation or activity has the potential of an exposure to asbestos, PCB oil, pesticide spray, or any other containment.

Protective Clothing:

  • Whenever engaged in an activity or operation where the normal working attire will not afford suitable protection from injury.

    Eye and Face Protection Selection Chart

  • Source Assessment of Hazard Protection
    Impact - Chipping, grinding, machining, masonry work, working, sawing, drilling, chiseling, powered fastening, riveting, sanding Flying fragments, objects, large chips, particles of sand, dirt, etc. Spectacles with side protection, goggles, face shields. See notes(1), (3), (5), (6), (10). For severe exposure use face shield
    Heat - Furnace operations, pouring, casting, hot dipping, and welding.
    1. Hot sparks
    2. Splash from molten metals
    3. High temperature exposure
    1. Face shields, goggles, spectacles with side protection.
    2. For severe exposure use face shield. See notes (1), (2), (3).
    3. Face shield worn over goggles.
    4. See notes (1), (2), (3).
    5. Screen face shields, reflective face shields. See notes (1), (2),(3).
    Chemicals - All chemical handling
    1. Splash
    2. Irritating Mists
    1. Goggles, eyecup and cover types.
    2. For severe exposure use face shield.
    3. See notes (3), (11).
    4. Special purpose goggles.
    Dust - Woodworking, buffing, general dusty conditions Nuisance dust Goggles, eyecup and cover types. See note (8).
    Light Radiation
    Welding: Electric arc
    Optical radiation
    1. Welding helmets or welding shields.
    2. Typical shades: 1 0-14. See notes (9), (12).
    Optical radiation
    1. Welding goggles or welding face shield.
    2. Typical shades: gas welding 4 - 8, cutting 3 - 6, brazing 3 - 4. See note (9).
    Cutting, torch brazing, torch soldering Optical radiation
    1. Spectacles or welding face shield.
    2. Typical shades 1.5 - 3.
    3. See notes (3), (9).
    Notes for Eye and Face Protection Selection Chart
    1. Care shall be taken to recognize the possibility of multiple and simultaneous exposure to a variety of hazards. Adequate protection against the highest level of each of the hazards shall be provided. Protective devices do not provide unlimited protection.
    2. Operations involving heat may also involve light radiation. Protection from both hazards must be provided.
    3. Face shields shall only be worn over primary eye protection (spectacles or goggles).
    4. Filter lenses must meet the requirements for shade designations in 29 CFR 1910.133(a)(5). Tinted and shaded lenses are not filter lenses unless they are marked or identified as such.
    5. Persons whose vision requires the use of prescription (Rx) lenses must wear either protection devices fitted with prescription (Rx) lenses or protective devices designed to be worn over regular prescription (Rx) eyewear.
    6. Wearers of contact lenses must also wear appropriate eye and face protection devices in a hazardous environment. It shall be recognized that dusty and/or chemical environments may represent an additional hazard to contact lens wearers.
    7. Caution shall be exercised in the use of metal frame protective devices in electrical hazard areas.
    8. Atmospheric conditions and the restricted ventilation of the protector can cause lenses to fog. Frequent cleansing may be necessary.
    9. Welding helmets of face shields shall be used only over primary eye protection (spectacles or goggles).
    10. All safety glasses must have side shields in place.This is minimum protection.
    11. Ventilation shall be adequate, but well protected from splash entry. Eye and face protection shall be designed and used so that it provides both adequate ventilation and protects the wearer from splash entry (per ANSI Z87-1.1989).
    12. Protection from light radiation is directly related to filter lens density. See note (4). Select the darkest shade that allows task performance.

Hand Protection Selection Chart

Gloves are often relied upon to prevent cuts, abrasions, burns, and skin contact with chemicals that are capable of causing local or systemic effects following dermal exposure. There are no gloves available that provide protection against all potential hand hazards, and commonly available glove materials provide only limited protection against many chemicals. Therefore, it is important to select the most appropriate glove for a particular application and to determine how long it can be worn, and whether it can be reused. Hypoallergenic gloves must be provided if necessary.
The following chart can be used as a guide in determining the correct chemical protective clothing material for the chemical hazard. For the best protection, check with the manufacturer for degradation and permeation information.

  • PVC = Polyvinyl Chloride
  • PVA= Polyvinyl Alcohol
    Chemical Excellent Good Do Not USe
    Acetaldehyde None Nat. Rubber, Neoprene Nitrile, PVA, PVC
    Acetic Acid, Glacial Neoprene Natural Rubber, Nitrile PVA, PVC
    Acetone None Nat. Rubber, Neoprene Nitrile, PVA, PVC
    Benzene None PVA Nat. Rubber, Neoprene, Nitrile
    Butanol Nat. Rubber, Neoprene,
    Nitrile
    PVC PVA
    Butyl Cellosolve (2-ethoxyethanol) Neoprene, Nitrile Nat. Rubber PVA, PVC
    Butyl Acetate PVA Nitrile Nat. Rubber, Neoprene,
    PVC
    Cellosolve
    (2-ethoxyethanol)
    Neoprene Nitrile Nat. Rubber, Neoprene, PVC
    Chloroform PVA None Nat. Rubber, Neoprene, Nitrile, PVC
    Ethyl Acetate None Nat. Rubber, Neoprene, PVA Nitrile, PVC
    Ethylene Glycol Nat. Rubber, Neoprene,
    Nitrile, PVC
    None PVA
    Formaldehyde (>10%) Nitrile Nat. Rubber, Neoprene,
    PVC
    PVA
    Hexane Neoprene, Viton PVA Nat. Rubber, PVC
    Isoproponal Nat. Rubber, Nitrile,
    Viton
    PVC PVA
    Methanol Nat. Rubber, Neoprene PVC PVA
    Methylene Chloride None PVA, Viton Nat. Rubber, Neoprene, PVC
    Methyl Ethyl Ketone None Nat. Rubber, PVA Neoprene, Nitrile, PVC
    Methyl Isobutyl Ketone None Nat. Rubber, PVA Neoprene, Nitrile, PVC
    Mineral Spirits Nitrile, PVA Neoprene Nat. Rubber, PVC
    Nitric Acid (70%) Neoprene PVC Nat. Rubber, Nitrile, PVA
    Perchlorethylene PVA, Viton None Nat. Rubber, Neoprene, PVC
    Sodium Hydroxide Nat. Rubber, Neoprene, Nitrile PVC PVA
    Sulfuric Acid (95%) PVC Neoprene Nat. Rubber, Nitrile, PVA
    Toluene Viton PVA Nat. Rubber, Neoprene, PVC
    1,1,1-Tirchloroethane PVA None Nat. Rubber, Neoprene, PVC
    Xylene PVA, Viton None Nat. Rubber, Neoprene, PVC

Respirator Selection and Use

  • Selection of respirators and respirator accessories, fit testing and training must be coordinated through the Environmental Health Safety Manager.
    1. The Environmental Health Safety Manager will evaluate the work area for chemical toxicity, the potential for exposure, the concentration and duration of exposure, and the limitation of the various types of respiratory protection that are available.
    2. A respirator must never be worn before an evaluation has been made. Use of a respirator by an untrained individual, or in an application other than that for which it was designed, can prove extremely dangerous. In addition, a single respirator face piece cannot be designed to fit the entire working population.
    3. Any laboratory user who is required to wear a respirator must receive medical clearance, be fit tested and trained before using the respirator.

Emergencies

General

For emergencies such as fires, explosions, spills or transportation accidents, the basic protocol is: Rescue anyone immediately affected by the emergencies. Only perform the rescue if it does not put yourself at risk. If trained, provide first aid to the victims.

Notify the proper authorities:

  • If the emergency involves a fire, use the manual pull box to activate the alarm.

For other emergencies, contact Amherst College Police at 2111, and describe the emergency. Request the Hazardous Materials Response Team (HAZMAT) for biological and chemical emergencies, and the Radiation Protection Officer if radiological materials are involved.

  • Warn others in the area about the emergency, and stay clear of the area.
  • Follow the directions of the emergency Responders (i.e. Fire Department personnel, Chemical Hygiene Officer personnel). Do not reenter the area until the area is deemed safe by the Chemical Hygiene Officer or other emergency responders.
  • Laboratory Standard Operating Procedures must include informa­tion on preventing and responding to spills for each hazardous chemical or process.

Biohazard Spills in the Laboratory

Employee Contamination

  1. If the skin becomes contaminated with blood or other potentially infectious materials, wash the area thoroughly with soap and water.
  2. If blood or other potentially infectious material is splashed into the eyes, immediately use the eyewash station, and flush for at least 15 minutes. Contact Human Resources for exposure control form.
  3. Remove grossly contaminated clothing immediately. Place the contaminated clothing in a plastic bag. Bag must be labeled with hazard (i.e. Biohazard).
  4. Report the spill to the Supervisor, and seek medical attention.

Clean-Up

  1. Wear the appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) to cleanup the spill. At a minimum, this includes gloves, protective eyewear and a mask, or a face shield. Depending on the size and type of spill, impervious gowns, protective foot coverings, or respirators may be needed.
  2. Pick up any broken glass with tongs, dust pan, or some other mechanical device. Do not use your hands.
  3. Place absorbent towels over the spill, making sure not to spread the liquid.
  4. Carefully pour a dilute bleach solution (1:10) or other EPA registered tuberculocidal agent (i.e. Lysol IC is used on campus) over the absorbent towels. Let this remain for 20 minutes in order to disinfect the spill.
  5. Carefully pick up the absorbent towels, and place into a plastic bag. Wash the contaminated area again with the bleach, unless incompatible with spilled material, or other disinfect­ant. Rinse the area with water.
  6. All PPE, towels, and other items that became contami­nated must be disposed of as regulated medical waste.
  7. Wash hands and any other exposed skin with soap and water before leaving the work area.

Spills or Breakage in a Centrifuge

  1. Turn off the centrifuge, and allow it to come to a full stop before opening the cover.
  2. Wear the appropriate PPE to clean the spill.
  3. Remove any broken glass with tongs, dustpan, or other mechanical means, and clean the spill as outlined above.

Spills in a Biological Safety Cabinet or Laminar Flow Hood

  1. Do not shut off the ventilation. The cabinet shall be left running to prevent the escape of contaminants. If there is a UV light,leave it on.
  2. Wear the appropriate PPE. If the material is infectious, a respirator may be needed. Contact the Chemical Hygiene Officer for additional information.
  3. Use a diluted bleach solution (1:10) or an EPA registered tuberculocidalagent to disinfect the cabinet. Wipe the walls, work surfaces, and equipment with the disinfectant. Use sufficient amount of the disinfectant to ensure that the drain pans and catch basins below the work surface get disinfected. Lift the front exhaust grill and tray and wipe all surfaces. Let the disinfectant stand for 10 minutes. Wipe the catch basin and drain the disinfectant into a container. Wipe the area with water.
  4. This procedure will not disinfect the filters, blowers air ducts,or other interior parts of the cabinet. If the cabinet is to be sterilized,contact the Chemical Hygiene Officer for additional information.

Incidental Chemical Spills

Chemical spill will be handled in accordance with the Amherst College Hazardous Material Spill Control Policy, 6.2.

Incidental Chemical Spill Clean-Up (small spills less than 100 mL, 100 cc.)

  • These spills can be cleaned up by trained laboratory personnel.

If no person has been contaminated by the spill and the spill is localized, do the following:

  1. Do not re-enter the laboratory alone. Use proper personnel protection equipment (PPE) such as gloves, eye protection, and body protection, e.g., lab coat.
  2. Notify all other personnel in the affected room to evacu­ate including yourself. Have someone notify the laboratory supervisor or Principal Investigator. Keep other people out of the laboratory.
  3. Determine if the spill can be cleaned up by using spill pillows, towels, sand, etc.
  4. Clean up the spill and place the spill clean up items into a labeled hazardous waste container and place it into the Satellite Accumulation Area.
  5. Remove any contaminated PPE and immediately wash hands, etc. Dispose of the contaminated PPE as any contaminated item used in the spill clean up has been handled.
  6. The incident shall be reported to the Environmental Health & Safety Manager on Form 1, Appendix A by the person responsible for the room, laboratory, etc.

If any person has been contaminated by the spill, especially eyes and skin, you must ask for First Response Personnel.

  1. Notify all other personnel in the affected room to evacu­ate, exit the room and close the doors to the room.
  2. Assist the contaminated person(s) to a safe eyewash or drench shower station to wash the contamination away.
  3. Notify the Campus Police Department, x2111. Give the name of the chemical and that a small spill has occurred. The Campus Police will notify the EH & S Manager, x8189 or the Chemical Hygiene Officer, x2736 if the EH&S Manager is unavailable.
  4. Ask the Campus Police for medical assistance for the person(s) affected by the spill.
  5. Remain at the door of the room to explain to the First Responders the quantity and location of the spill.

Spill Remediation

  1. The First Responders shall evaluate the spill quantity and location for feasibility of complete Remediation.
  2. The First Responders shall clean up the spill using approved spill clean up kits, personal protection equip­ment, etc.
  3. The incident shall be reported to the Environmental Health & Safety Manager on Form 1, Appendix A by the person responsible for the room, laboratory, etc and the First Responders.

Handling of the Hazardous Waste

  1. All items used in the spill clean up shall be placed into a suitable container and labeled with the appropriate hazardous waste information.
  2. The container shall be placed into a Satellite Accumula­tion Area for safekeeping and handled in accordance with Policy 8.2, Satellite Accumulation Area Management Policy.
  3. Incidental spills are defined as hazardous material releases into a room which do not exceed the Reportable Quantity (RQ) per 310 CMR Subpart P, Massachusetts Oil and Hazardous Material List for a specific hazardous material. The guideline for this policy is 100 milliliters (mL) or less.

Reportable Spills

  • Reportable spills are defined as hazardous material releases into a room which do equal or exceed the Reportable Quantity (RQ) per 310 CMR Subpart P, Massachusetts Oil and Hazardous Material List for a specific hazardous material. The guideline for this policy is 100 milliliters (mL) or greater.

Spill Response

  1. Notify all other personnel in the affected room.
  2. All personnel exit the room and close the doors to the room.
  3. Prevent others from entering the room.
  4. Notify the Campus Police Department, x2111 that a large spill has occurred. Tell the Campus Police the name of the chemical spilled.The Campus Police will notify the EH&S Manager, x8189.
  5. The EH & S Manager shall notify the Amherst College Emergency Response Team of the spill.
  6. Remain at the door of the room to explain to the First Responders the quantity and location of the spill.

Spill Remediation

  • Amherst College Emergency Response Team shall treat the spill in accordance with the Amherst College Emergency Contingency Plan. The incident shall be reported to the Environmental Health & Safety Manager on Form 1, Appendix A by the person responsible for the room, laboratory, etc. and the First Responders.

Handling of the Hazardous Waste

  • Handling of the hazardous waste shall be accomplished in accordance with the Amherst College Emergency Contingency Plan and the
    Hazardous Waste Management Policy, 8.0.

Reporting

Notification of reportable hazardous material spills per 310 CMR Subpart P,Massachusetts Oil and Hazardous Material List shall be accomplished in accordance with the Amherst College Hazard Communication Plan 2.17 and the Emergency Management Plan, 5.0 on the following Incident Form 1.

  

Incident Form

Hazardous Waste Disposal

General
  • Laboratory Standard Operation Procedures (Section V), must include information on waste disposal for each hazardous chemical or process.
  • Contact the Chemical Hygiene Officer for more specific guidance.
Work Practices
  1. The generation of hazardous waste is to be minimized. Investigators are encouraged to develop and use validated experimental procedures that replace hazardous materials with non-hazardous materials, minimize generation of hazardous wastes, or result in effective treatment of wastes to reduce or eliminate hazardous characteristics.
  2. When packaging any type of waste for collection do not put more than40 pounds of waste in a single container nor fill more than 3/4 full.
    Allow space in containers for expansion of vapors.
  3. All materials that pose a potential puncture hazard (e.g., hypodermic needles, broken glass,and plastic-ware) must be packaged in puncture resistant containers prior to removal from the work area.
  4. Do not mix general waste with hazardous wastes (e.g., Regulated Medical Waste, Asbestos, Chemical, or Radioactive Waste). Do not commingle hazardous waste categories (e.g., Flammables and Poisons). Do not package general waste in hazardous waste containers.
  5. Non-water soluble materials, Primary Radioactive Wastes, and Hazardous Chemical Wastes such as Corrosives, Flammable Liquids, Carcinogens, Mutagens and other toxic or reactive chemicals shall not be discharged into any sanitary or storm drain systems. Any exceptions must be approved by the Chemical Hygiene Officer prior to disposal.
  6. Hazardous wastes must never be left in or on loading docks, elevators, lobbies, hallways or any other unrestricted locations.
  7. All hazardous wastes must be identified before being offered for disposal. Waste of unknown or incorrectly described composition presents difficult handling and disposal problems and may require costly analysis before removal and disposal can be accomplished. The cost of the analysis and disposal is the responsibility of the generator.
  8. Before initiating treatment or recycling of a hazardous waste, generators are requested to contact the Chemical Hygiene Officer to ensure that the proposed treatment process meets safe­ty, regulatory, and record keeping requirements per Laboratory Hazardous Waste Treatment Policy, 21.0.

Exposure Monitoring and Evaluation

Exposure Monitoring
  1. Monitoring for airborne concentrations of hazardous materials is not normally needed. OSHA regulated chemicals (e.g., formaldehyde, benzene, methylene chloride and cadmium) may require initial monitoring, and additional monitoring if the Action Level or Permissible Exposure Level (PEL)is exceeded.
  2. Exposure monitoring for non-OSHA regulated chemicals will be conducted under the following circumstances:
  • When large quantities of a hazardous chemical are used for a long period of time.
  • When the PI or Laboratory Supervisor requests monitoring.
  • An accident involving release of air contaminants.
  • Within 15 days of receipt of monitoring results, laboratory users will be notified of the results in writing either individually or by posting results in an appropriate location.
  • Laboratory Standard Operating Procedures must include information on whether or not exposure monitoring is required for each hazardous chemical or process.

Exposure Evaluation

An exposure evaluation is performed to determine whether there was an exposure that might have caused harm to one or more laboratory users and,if so, to identify the hazardous chemical, or chemicals, that were involved and the equipment and procedures relevant to the event.

Events or circumstances which might reasonably be considered as evidence that an overexposure to hazardous chemicals has occurred include:

  1. Uncontrolled release of a hazardous chemical
  2. Any monitoring or air sampling results indicating an exposure above acceptable levels
  3. Direct skin or eye contact with a chemical
    d. Detection of an odor, especially if the person was working with any chemical which has a lower PEL or TLV than odor threshold
  4. The manifestation of health hazard symptoms
  5. Disappearance of some or all symptoms when the person is taken away from the chemical area and into fresh air
  6. Reappearance of prior symptoms soon after person resumes working with chemicals again
  7. Complaints from person(s) in the same work area.

The following procedure will be followed for an exposure evaluation

  • Interview the person reporting the event, and any other persons potentially exposed.
  • List essential information about the circumstances of the event, including:
  1. Specific chemical(s) involved.
  2. Other chemical used by workers involved in the event.
  3. Other chemicals used by others in the immediate area.
  4. Other chemicals stored in that area.
  5. Symptoms exhibited or described by workers.
  6. Symptoms stated in the MSDSs or other pertinent references for chemicals in the area.
  7. Description of control measures, such as fume hoods and PPE, and the way they were used at the time of the event.
  8. Results of any air sampling or monitoring devices in place.
  9. Sample air and work surfaces as appropriate in the area.
  10. Determine how the workers symptoms compare to the information in the literature.
  11. Decide whether to send the worker for preliminary medical evaluations
  12. Review the adequacies of present control measures and safety procedures.

Medical Consultants and Exams

Requirements

Employees who work with hazardous chemicals are provided the opportunity to receive a medical consultation and examination whenever:

An employee develops signs and symptoms of exposure associated with chemicals they are using, or may be in contact with, in the laboratory.

  • OSHA regulated substances are measured above permissi­ble exposure limits (PEL).
    Whenever an event takes place in the work area such as a spill or leak resulting in the likelihood of a hazardous exposure, the affected employee shall be provided an opportunity for a medical consultation. Such consultation shall be for the purpose of determining the need for a medical examination.

All medical examinations and consultants must;

  • Be performed by or under the direct supervision of a licensed occupational physician. Every effort shall be made to refer employees to licensed physicians have been trained to recognize signs and symptoms of chemical-related exposure and disease.
  • Be provided at no cost to the employee.
  • Be provided without loss of pay to the employee.
  • Be performed at a reasonable time and place for the employee. Every effort shall be made to schedule medical examinations and consultations during the employee's regularly scheduled work hours, provided there is no undue delay in medical attention.

The Department must provide to the examining physician:

  • The generic and trade names of all hazardous chemicals and chemical compounds to which the employee may have been exposed. The employer shall also provide to the physician copies of Material Safety Data Sheets for any suspect chemical.
  • Conditions under which the exposure occurred. The employer must provide all available information including data pertaining to experiments or procedures involved.
  • Signs or symptoms of exposure experienced by the employee during, soon after, and within 72 hours after the incident. Everyone in the proximity of the exposure shall be interviewed to determine if others experienced similar symptoms. In the even that the employee is not able to communicate, others in the laboratory may be able to recall symptoms they observed or know the employee complaint.

Human Resources

Human Resources must obtain a written opinion from the examining physician. The written opinion must include:

  • Recommendations for medical follow-up
  1. The results of all medical examinations and tests
  2. Any medical condition the employee has that places him or her at risk as a result of future exposures to hazardous chemicals.
  3. A statement confirming that the employee has been advised of the results of the examinations and tests, including any medical conditions relevant to occupational or chemical exposures.
  4. The written opinion must not reveal specific findings of diagnoses unrelated to occupational exposure.
  5. Medical records will be kept by the Human Resources for 40 years. Medical records are considered privileged information.

Employee Information and Training

Information
Each department must make health and safety information for each chemical (or hazard class or chemicals) used or stored in the lab readily available to all laboratory employees during working hours. Employees must have access to Material Safety Data Sheets and other reference texts on chemical health hazards, fire hazards, reactivity hazards, and properties(vapor density, vapor pressure, lower and upper explosive limits, etc.) at any time. Employees must have access to a copy of the OSHA Laboratory Standard and its appendices, as well as to a list of OSHA per­missible exposure limits.
Training

Personnel Affected

All laboratory employees including faculty, graduate student teaching assistants,postdoctoral candidates, secretaries, laboratory technicians, and maintenance and custodial employees who may come in contact with the laboratory environment must attend a laboratory employee training session provided by the Chemical Hygiene Officer at the time of initial employment and each year there after. The training will cover their rights and responsibilities under the OSHA Laboratory Standard, and specific operating procedures for working with chemicals. Additional training will be provided when new hazards are introduced. 

Training Program Elements

Orientation sessions: A department-specific chemical hazard orientation session will be conducted for each department by the Chemical Hygiene Officer. Specific focus for training sessions will be developed by the Chemical Hygiene Officer in conjunction with depart­mental representatives.

Times and locations for these sessions must be sent to each depart­ment chairperson and sign-up sheets will be posted. All laboratory employees must attend this session at least once a year. Training must be given in languages that can be understood by all employees. The Chem­ical Hygiene Officer will coordinate attendance through designated Department personnel. These orientation sessions will cover the following topics:

  1. Commonwealth of Massachusetts Right-to-Know Law Provisions
  2. Contents of the OSHA Laboratory Standard and its appendices and how the Amherst College has responded to meet its responsibilities
  3. Location and availability of the Chemical Hygiene Plan, Material Safety Data Sheets, and additional resources on all aspects of laboratory health and safety relevant to employee exposure.
  4. How to read a Material Safety Data Sheet.
  5. Physical and health hazards of chemical classes (flammable, reactives,carcinogens, corrosives, etc.) Used by employees and general operation procedures for handling, storing, and disposing of these materials.
  6. Signs and symptoms of exposure to chemicals and availability of medical consultations and exams.
  7. Use of fume hoods and personal protective equipment.
  8. Special operating procedures to be used for extremely hazardous chemicals.
  9. How to conduct a hazard evaluation of lab operations
  10. How to conduct a laboratory inspection
  11. Protocol for dealing with faulty hoods and equipment and lack of proper safety equipment.
  12. OSHA permissible exposure limits and other recom­mended limits (National Institutes for Occupational Safety and Health, American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists).
  13. Filing incident report forms.

Hands-On Instruction (Required by Massachusetts Fire Prevention Regulations 527 CMR 10.)

All laboratory supervisors will conduct training with assistance from the Chemical Hygiene Officer or other capable individual to ensure that all employees in the laboratory receive hands-on experience with:

  1. Proper use of fume hoods and other local exhaust system and assessment of hood performance.
  2. Use of emergency showers and eyewash stations.
  3. Location and use of spill-control equipment.
  4. Emergency protocol and telephone numbers.
  5. Chemicals and standard operating procedures used in the laboratory.
  6. When feasible, spill scenarios (derived from selected hazard evaluations of procedures conducted in the laboratory) and potential medical emergencies will be simulated (using inert materials) and discussed.

Refresher and New Hazard Training

Training for experienced workers will be scheduled whenever new hazards are introduced, and when lab conditions or practices change. Refresher training will be scheduled or integrated into other lab activities as needed. Training will be coordinated by the Chemical Hygiene Officer.

Training Materials

The following materials, at a minimum, will be distributed in each initial training program:

  1. Right to Know fact sheet
  2. Laboratory Standard fact sheet
  3. List of key emergency telephone numbers.
  4. Sample MSDS and fact sheet on how to read
  5. Chemical storage scheme chart
  6. List of hazard classes and chemical examples
  7. Hazard review checklist
  8. Laboratory inspection form
  9. Incident report form

Recordkeeping

Each department must maintain records of all laboratory training sessions, including sample agendas, handouts, sign-in sheets, course data, and the number of hours participants attended. Copies of these records must be provided to the Chemical Hygiene Officer after each training session. The Chemical Hygiene Officer will maintain training records. Records will be maintained for three (3) years.

Resources

Journals

  • Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene. Cincinnati, OH: American Conference of Governmental Hygienists.
  • Chemical and Engineering News. Washington, D.C.: American Chemical Society
  • Journal of Chemical Education. Easton, PA: American Chemical Society, Division of Chemical Education
  • Chemical Health & Safety, Washington, D. C.: Division of Chemical Health and Safety and the American Chemical Society
  • Laboratory Safety and Environmental Management. Burbank,CA: Target Group

Laboratory Safety

  • Ashbrook, P. C. and Renfrew, M. M. Eds. Safe Laboratories:Principles and Practices for Design and Remodeling. Lewis Publishers:Chelsea, MI, 1991.
  • Luxon, S. G. Hazards in the Chemical Laboratory; 5th ed.:Royal Society of Chemistry: London, 1993.
  • Mayo, D. W., et. al. Microscale Organic Laboratory; Wiley:New York, 1989.
  • Pipitone, D. A., Ed. Safe Storage of Laboratory Chemicals;2nd ed.; Wiley/Inter­science: New York, 1991.
  • Stricoff, R. S. Handbook of Laboratory Health and Safety, 2nded.; 1995.
  • Young, J. A., Ed. Improving Safety in the Chemical Laboratory:A Practial Guide; 2nd ed.; Wiley/ Interscience: New York, 1991.
  • Design of Safe Chemical Laboratories: Suggested References;Committee on Chemical Safety; American Chemical Society: Washington, D. C.,1991.
  • Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals; National Academy of Sciences: Washington, D. C., 1995.
  • Safety in Academic Chemistry Laboratories, 6th ed., AmericanChemical Society: Washington, D. C., 1995.
  • Safety in the Chemical Laboratory; 4 vols.; Reprints from J.Chem. Educ., Journal of chemical Education: Easton, PA, 1964-1980.
  • Understanding Chemical Hazards: A Guide for Students; AmericanChemical Society: Washington, D. C., 1994.
  • McKusick, B. B. A Procedures for Laboratory Destruction of Chemicals,@ J. Chem. Educ. 61, A152 (1984). Hoods, Laboratory Ventilation
    • Burton, J. Laboratory Ventilation Workbook; 2nd ed.; I'VE: Cincinnati, OH, 1994.
    • DiBerardinis, L. J.; et al. Guidelines for Laboratory Design: Health and Safety Considerations, 2nd ed.; Wiley/Interscience: New York, 1993.
    • Saunders, G. T. Laboratory Fume Hoods: a User's Manual; Wiley/Interscience: New York, 1993.
    • Industrial Ventilation; A Manual of Recommended Practice; 22nded.; American Conference of Governmental and Industrial Hygienists: Cincinnati, OH, 1995.
    • Fundamentals Governing the Design and Operation of Local ExhaustSystems, ANSI Z9.2-1992; american National Standards Institute: New York,1992.
    • Methods of Testing Performance of Laboratory Fume Hoods, ANSI/ASHRAE 110-1985; American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air
      Conditioning Engineers, Atlanta, GA, 1985.
    • Mikell, W. G.; Fuller, R.H. A Good Hood Practices for Safe Hood Operation,@ J. Chem. Educ. 65, A36(1988).
    Hazardous Substances Information
    • Budavari, S. The Merck Index of Chemicals and Biologicals, 12th ed.; Rahway, NJ: Merck and Company.
    • Clayton, F. & G., eds. Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology (5 vols), New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1994.
    • Sax, N. I. Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials, 9thed.; New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
    • Sittig, M. Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, 3rd ed. Park Ridge, NJ: Noyes Publications, 1992.
    • American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH). Threshold Limit Values for chemical Substances and Physical Agentsin the Work Environment and Biological Exposure Indices; Cincinnati,OH; ACGIH.
    • National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards; NIOSH Publication 90-117. Washington, D. C.; US Government Printing Office.
    • Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Toxic and Hazardous Substances, 29 CFR Part 1910.1000-1101. Washington, D. C.; U. S. GovernmentPrinting Office.
    • Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS); DHHS (NIOSH); Governmental Printing Office: Washington, D.C.
    Carcinogens
    • International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. Albany, NY: World Health Organization.
    • Castegnaro, M.; Sansone, E. B. Chemical Carcinogens: SomeGuidelines for Handling and Disposal in the Laboratory; Springer-Verlag:New York, 1986.
    • Walters, D. B. Ed. Safe Handling of Chemical Carcinogens, Mutagens, Terato­gens, and Highly Toxic Substances; Ann Arbor Science/CRC Press:Boca Raton, FL, 1990.
    • Carcinogens - Regulation and control: A Management Guide to Carcinogens, Regulation and Control; NIOSH, DHEW Publication 77-205; US Government Printing Office; Washington, D. C., 1977.
    • Carcinogens - Working with Carcinogens - Regulation and Control. Working with Carcinogens - A Guide to Good Health Practices; NIOSH, DHEWPublica­tion 77-206; US Government Printing Office: Washington, D. C.,1977.
    • NIH Guidelines for the Laboratory Use of Chemical Carcinogens;National Institutes of Health, DHSS; US Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1981.
    • Annual Report on Carcinogens; DHHS (NTP), a summary from NationalToxicology Program; Public Information Office: Research Triangle Park,NC, 1994.
    Reproductive Toxins
    • Shepard, T. H. Catalog of Teratogenic Agents; 8th ed.; JohnsHopkins: Baltimore, MD, 1995.
    • Messite, J.; Bond, M. B. A Reproductive Toxicology and OccupationalExposure,@ Chapter 54. In: Occupational Medicine, C. Zenz ed.; Chicago,IL, Yearbook Medical Publishers, 1988.
    • Reproductive Health Hazards in the Workplace; Office of Technology Assess­ment; US Government Printing Office: Washington, D.C., 1985.
    • Beyler, R. E.; Myers, V. K. A What Every Chemist Should Know AboutTerato­gens,@ J. Chem. Educ. 59, 759 (1982).
    Toxicology
    • Gosselin, R. E., Ed. Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products; 5th ed.; Williams and Wilkins: Baltimore, MD, 1984.
    • Klassen, C. D.; Amdur, M. O. and Doull, J. Cassarett and Doull'sToxicology: The Basic Science of Poisons, 5th ed. MacMillan PublishingCompany: New York, 1995.
    Reactive Chemicals
    • Bretherick, L. Bretherick's Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards; 4th ed.; Butter­worths: London, 1990.
    • Manual of Hazardous Chemical Reactions; NFPA Manual 491M; National Fire Protection Association: Quincy, MA, 1986.
    Compressed Gases
    • Braker, W.; Mossman, A. L. Gas Data Book; 6th ed.; MathesonGas Products: East Rutherford, NJ, 1980.
    • Handbook of compressed Gases; 3rd ed.; Compressed Gas Association: Arling­ton, VA, 1990.
    Biosafety
    • Fleming, D. O., et. al. Laboratory Safety: Principles and Practices, 2nd ed.; American Society for Microbiology: Washington, D. C., 1995.
    • Biosafety Reference Manual; 2nd ed.; American Industrial Hygiene Association: Fairfax, VA, 1995.
    • Biosafety in the Laboratory: Prudent Practices for the Handlingand Disposal of Infectious Materials; National Academy Press: Washington, D.C., 1989.
    • Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories, 3rded.; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and National Institutes ofhealth; HHS Publication No. (CDC) 93-8395; U. S. Government Printing Office,Washington, D. C., 1993.

    APPENDIX A

    Chemical Compound Is Incompatible With
    Acetic Acid Chromic Acid, Nitric Acid, Hydroxyl Compounds, Eth­ylene Glycol, Perchloric Acid, Peroxides, Permangantes
    Acetylene Chlorine, Bromine, Copper, Fluorine, Silver, Mercury
    Acetone Concentrated Nitric And Sulfuric Acid Mixtures
    Alkali and Alkaline Earth
    (e.g. Powdered Aluminum or Magnesium, Calcium, Lithium, Sodium, Potassium)
    Water, Carbon Tetrachloride or other Chlorinated Metals
    Hydrocarbons, Carbon Dioxide, Halogens
    Ammonia (Anhydrous) Mercury (e.g. in Manometers), Chlorine, Calcium Hypochlorite, Iodine, Bromine, Hydrofluoric Acid (Anhydrous)
    Ammonium Nitrate Acids, Powdered Metals, Flammable Liquids, Chlorates, Nitrates, Sulfur, Finely Divided Organic or Cumbustible Materials
    Aniline Nitric Acid, Hydrogen Peroxide
    Arsenical Materials Any Reducing Agent
    Azides Acids
    Bromine See Chlorine
    Calcium Oxide Water
    Carbon (Activated) Calcium Hyperchlorite, All Oxidizing Agents
    Carbon Tetrachloride Sodium
    Chlorates Ammonium Salts, Acids, Powdered Metals, Sulfur, Finely Divided Organic or Combustible Materials
    Chlorine Ammonia, Acetylene, Butadiene, Butane, Methane, Propane (or Other Petroleum Gases), Hydrogen, Sodium Carbide, Benzene, Finely Divided Metals, Turpentine
    Chlorine Dioxide Ammonia, Methane, Phosphine, Hydrogen Sulfide
    Copper Acetylene, Hydrogen Peroxide
    Cumene Hydroperoxide Acids (Organic or Inorganic)
    Cyanides Acids
    Flammable Liquids Ammonium Nitrate, Chromatic Acid, Hydrogen Peroxide, Nitric Acid, Sodium Peroxide, Halogens
    Fluorine Isolate From Everything
    Hydrocarbons (e.g. Butane, Benzene) Flourine, Chlorine, Bromine, Chromic Acid, Sodium Peroxide
    Hydrocyanic Acid Nitric Acid, Alkali
    Hydrofluoric Acid (Anhy­drous) Ammonia (Aqueous or Anhydrous)
    Hydrogen Peroxide Copper, Chromium, Iron, Most Metals or Their Salts, Alcohols, Acetone, Organic Materials, Aniline, Nitromethane, Combustible Materials
    Hydrogen Sulfide Fuming Nitric Acid, Oxidizing Gases
    Hypochlorites Acids, Activated Carbon
    Iodine Acetylene, Ammonia (Aqueous or Anhydrous), Hydrogen
    Mercury Acetylene, Fulminic Acid, Ammonia
    Nitrates Sulfuric Acid
    Nitroparaffins Inorganic Bases, Amines
    Oxalic Acid Silver, Mercury
    Oxygen Oils, Grease, Hydrogen, Flammable Liquids, Solids
    Perchloric Acid Acetic Anhydride, Bismuth and its Alloys, Alcohol, Paper, Wood, Grease, Oils
    Peroxides, Organic Acids (Organic or Mineral), Avoid Friction, Store Cold
    Phosphorus (White) Air, Oxygen, Alkalis, Reducing Agents
    Phosphorus Pentoxide Water
    Potassium Carbon Tetrachloride, Carbon Dioxide, Water
    Potassium Chlorate Sulfuric and Other Acids
    Potassium Perchlorate (See Also Chlorates) Sulfuric and Other Acids
    Potassium Permanganate Glycerol, Ethylene Glycol, Benzaldehyde, Sulfuric Acid
    Selenides Reducing Agents
    Sodium Carbon Tetrachloride, Carbon Dioxide, Water
    Sodium Nitrate Ammonium Nitrate and Other Ammonium Salts
    Sodium Peroxide Ethyl or Methyl Alcohol, Glacial Acetic Acid, Acetic Anahydride, Benzaldehyde, Carbon Disulfide, Glycerin, Ethylene Glycol, Ethyl Acetate, Methyl Acetate, Furfural
    Sulfides Acids
    Sulfuric Acid Potassium Chlorate, Potassium perchlorate, Potassium Permanganate (Similar Compounds of Light Metals, Such as Sodium, Lithium)
    Tellurides Reducing Agents

    Source: Prudent Practices for Handling Chemicals in Laboratories,
    National Research Council, Washington, D.C., 1995.

    Appendix B

    Maximum Allowable Size of Containers and Portable Tanks
        FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS
    Container Type Class
    IA
    Class
    IB
    Class
    IC
    Class II Class III
    Glass 1 PT. 1 QT. 1 GAL. 1 GAL. 5 GAL.
    Metal (Other than Dot Drums) or Approved Plastic 2 GAL. 5 GAL. 5 GAL. 5 GAL. 5 GAL.
    Safety Cans 2 GAL. 5 GAL. 5 GAL. 5 GAL. 5 GAL.
    Metal Drums
    (Dot Spec.)
    60 GAL. 60 GAL. 60 GAL. 60 GAL. 60 GAL.
    Approved Portable
    Tanks
    660 GAL. 660 GAL. 660 GAL. 660 GAL. 660 GAL.

    Note: 1PT. = 413.18cm3, 1QT. =946.35cm3 , 1 GAL. =0.00379M3

    Appendix C

    Flash Points, Boiling Points, Ignition Temperatures, and Flammable Limitsof Some Common Flammable Laboratory Chemical
    Chemical Class Flash
    Point
    Boiling
    Point
    Ignition
    Temperature
    Flammable
    (% By Volu
    Limit
    me Air)
        (0C) (0C) (0C) Lower Upper
    Acetaldehyde 1A -37.8 21.1 175.0 4.0 60.0
    Acetone 1B -17.8 56.7 465.0 2.6 12.8
    Benzene 1B -11.1 80.0 560.0 1.3 7.1
    Carbon Disulfide 1B -30.0 46.1 80.0 1.3 50.0
    Cyclohexane 1B -20.0 81.7 245.0 1.3 8.0
    Diethyl Ether 1A -45.0 35.0 160.0 1.9 36.0
    Ethyl Alcohol 1B 12.8 78.3 365.0 3.3 19.0
    N-Heptane 1B -3.9 98.3 215.0 1.05 6.7
    N-Hexane 1B -21.7 68.9 225.0 1.1 7.5
    Isopropyl Alcohol 1B 11.7 82.8 398.9 2.0 12.0
    Methyl Alcohol 1B 11.1 64.9 385.0 6.7 36.0
    Methyl Ethyl
    Ketone
    1B -6.1 80.0 515.6 1.8 10.0
    Pentane 1A -40.0 36.1 260.0 1.5 7.8
    Styrene 1B 32.2 146.1 490.0 1.1 6.1
    Toluene 1B 4.4 110.6 480.0 1.2 7.1
    P-Xylene 1C 27.2 138.3 530.0 1.1 7.0

    Appendix D

    Partial List of Corrosive Chemicals
    ACIDS
    Nitric Perchloric
    Sulfuric Periodic
    Phosphoric Hydrofluoric
    Hydrochloric Chloracetic
    Acetic Cresylic
    Chromic  

    BASES

    Sodium Hydroxide Potassium Carbonate
    Potassium Hydroxide Calcium Hydroxide
    Ammonium Hydroxide Trisodium Phosphate
    Calcium Oxide Barium Hydroxide
    Sodium Carbonate Barium Carbonate

    OTHERS

    Bromine Glutaraldehyde

    Appendix E

    Partial List of Water Reactive Chemicals
    Alkali Metals, Such as Na, Li, K
    Alkali Metal Hydrides, Such as LiH, CaH2 , LiAlH4 , NaBh2
    Alkali Metal Amides, Such as NaNH2
    Metal Alkyls, Such as Lithium and Aluminum Alkyls
    Grignard Reagents, RmgX
    Halides of Nonmetals, Such as BCl3 , BF3 , Pcl5 ,SiCl4 , S2 Cl2
    Inorganic Acid Halides, Such as POCl3 , SOCl2 , SO2Cl2
    Anhydrous Metal Halides, Such as AlCl3 , TiCl4 , ZrCl4, SnCl4
    Phosphorous Pentoxide
    Calcium Carbide
    Organic Acid Halides and Anhydrides of Low Molecular Weight
    Metal Carbonyls, Such As Ni(CO)4, Fe(CO)5, Co2(CO)8
    Alkali Metals, Such As Na, K
    Metal Powders, Such As Al, Co, Fe, Mg, Mn, Pd, Pt, Ti, Sn, Zn, Zr
    Grignard Reagents, RMgX
    Metal Alkyls and Aryls, Such As RLi, RNa, R3Al, R2Zn
    Metal Hydrides, Such As NaH, LiAlH4
    Nonmetal Hydrides, Such As B2H6, and Other Boranes, PH3 , AsH3
    Nonmetal Alkyls, Such As R3 B, R3 P, R3 As
    Phosphorus (White)

    Appendix F

    Peroxide Forming Compounds

    LIST A: Severe Peroxide Hazard On Storage With Exposure To Air

    Discard Within 3 Months

    Diisopropyl Ether (Isopropyl Ether) Potassium Amide
    Divinylacetylene (DVA) Sodium Amide (Sodamide)
    Potassium Metal Vinylidene Chloride
    (1,1-DiChloroethylene)
    LIST B: Peroxide Hazard On Concentration

    Do Not Distill Or Evaporate Without First Testing
    For The Presence Of Peroxides.
    Discard Or Test For Peroxides After 6 Months

    Acetaldehyde Diethyl Acetal (Acetal) Ethylene Glycol Dimethyl (Glyme)
    Cumene (Isopropyl Benzene) Ethylene Glycol Ether Acetates
    Cyclohexene Ethylene Glycol Monoethers
    (Cellosolves)
    Cyclopentene Furan
    Decalin (Decahydronaphthalene) Methylacetylene
    Diacetylene (Butadiene) Methylcyclopentane
    Diethyl Ether (Ether) Tetrahydrofuran (THF)
    Dioxane Vinyl Ethers

    LIST C: Hazard Of Rapid Polymerization Initiated
    By Internally Formed
    Peroxides

    Normal Liquids
    Discard Or Test For Peroxides After 6 Months

    Chloroprene (2-Chloro-1,3-Butadiene) Vinyl Acetate
    Styrene Vinylpryidine

    Normal Gases
    Discard After 12 Months

    Butadiene Vinylacetylene (MVA)
    Tetrafluoroethylene (TFE) Vinyl Chloride

    Appendix G

    Data For Common Gases
    Data for Common Gases
    Gas Threshold Limit
    Values, ppm1
    Flammability Limits
    in Air % By Vol2
    Major Hazards
    Acetylene
    (Dissolved)
    Not Established* 2.5- 81.0 Flammable; Asphyxiant
    Ammonia (Liquid) 25 15-28 Toxic
    Argon Not Established
    (Nontoxic)
    None Asphyxiant
    Boron Trifluoride 1 None Toxic; Causes Burns
    1,3-Butadiene (Liquid) 10 2-11.5 Flammable; Skin Irritant; Suspect
    Carcinogen
    Butane (Liquid) Not Established* 1.9-8.5 Flammable
    Carbon Dioxide (Liquid) 5000 None Flammable; Toxic
    Carbon Monoxide 50 12.5-74.0 Toxic; Severe
    Chlorine (Liquid) 0.5 None Irritant; Causes Burns; Corrosive
    Ethane (Liquid) Not Established* 3.0-12.5 Flammable; Asphyxiant
    Ethylene Not Established* 3.1-32.0 Flammable; Asphyxiant
    Ethylene Oxide (Liquid Pure) 1 ppm 3.0-100.0 Flammable; Toxic Can Cause Burns When Trapped By Clothes Or Shoes; SuspectCarcinogen
    Helium Not Established None Asphyxiant
    Hydrogen Not Established 4.0-75.0 Flammable; Asphyxiant
    Hydrogen Bromide
    (Liquid)
    3 None Toxic; Causes Burns; Corrosive
    Hydrogen Chloride
    (Liquid)
    5 None Toxic; Causes Burns; Corrosive
    Hydrogen Fluoride
    (Liquid)
    3 None Toxic; Causes Severe Slow Healing Burns; Corrosive
    Hydrogen Sulfide
    (Liquid)
    10 4.3-45.0 Toxic; Flammable;
    Irritant
    Methane Not Established 5.3-14.0 Flammable; Asphyxiant
    Methyl Bromide
    (Liquid)
    5 13.5-14.5 Toxic; Causes Burns
    Methyl Chloride
    (Liquid)
    50 10.7-17.4 Toxic; Flammable
    Methyl Mercaptan
    (Liquid)
    0.5 Unknown Toxic; Flammable
    Nitrogen (Nontoxic) Not Established None Asphyxiant
    Nitrogen Dioxide
    (Liquid)
    3 None Toxic; Corrosive
    Oxygen Nontoxic None Highly Reactive
    Phosgene (Liquid) 0.1 None Toxic
    Propane (Liquid) Not Established* 2.2-9.5 Flammable; Asphyxiant
    Sulfur Dioxide (Liquid) 2 None Toxic; Causes Burns
    Vinyl Chloride 5 4.0-22.0 Flammable; Causes Burns, Human Carcinogen
    * Not Established (Non-Toxic-Produces Anesthetic Effects)
    1 Threshold Limit Values (1990-1991) ACHIH, Cincinnati, Ohio
    2 Zabetakis, M.G. Flammability ACharacteristics ofCombustible Gases And Vapors
    Bulletin 627, U.S. Bureau of Mines, U.S. Gov't Printing Office,Washington, D.C.

    Appendix H

    Parital List of Select Carcinogens*
    Partial List of Select Carcinogens*
    2-Acetylaminofluorene Dietheystilbestrol
    Acrylonitrile 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene
    Aflatoxics Erionite
    4-Aminobiphenyl Ethylene Oxide
    Analgesic Mixtures Containing Phenacetin Ethylenimine
    Arsenic and Certain Arsenic Compounds Formaldehyde
    Asbestos Melphalan
    Azathioprine Methoxsalen with Ultraviolet A Therapy
    Benzene 4,4'-Methylene-Bis(2-Chloroaniline)
    Benzidene Bis(2-Chloroethyl) Sulfide (Mustard Gas)
    Betel Quid Containing Tobacco (Chewing) N,N'-Bis (2-Chloroethyl)-2- Naphthylamine (Chloronaphazine)
    Bis(Chloromethyl) Ether and Technical Grade Chloromethyl Methyl Ether ?-Naphthylamine
    1,4-Butanediol Dimethylsulfonate (Myleran) ?-Naphthylamine
    1-(2-Chloroethyl)-3-
    (4-Methylnitrobiphenyl
    Cyclohexyl 4)-1-Nitrosourea (ME CCNU)
     
    Chlorambucil  
    Chloromethyl Methyl Ether N-Nitrosodimethylamine
    Chromium and Certain Chromic ?-Propiolactone
    Compounds Shale Oils
    Coal Tars Soots and Soot Extracts
    Conjugated Estrogens Thorium Dioxide
    Cyclophosphamide Tobacco Smoke
    1,2-Dibromo-3-Chloropropane Tresulphan
    3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (and its Salts) Vinyl Chloride
    * Regulated by OSHA as a carcinogen or A Known to be a Carcinogen: as per Annual Report on Carcinogens by NPT or Group1, A Carcinogenic To Humans: byI.A.R.C.

    Appendix I

    Regulated Carcinogens
    (Substances Reasonably Anticipated to Cause Cancer in Humans)

    Regulated Carcinogens
    (Substances Reasonably Anticipated to Cause Cancer in Humans)

    Acetadehyde 2-Acetalaminoflourene
    Acrylamide Acrylonitrile
    Adriamycin 2-Aminoanthraquinone
    O-Aminoazotoluene 1-Amino-2-Methylanthraquinone
    Amitrole O-Anisidine Hydrochloride
    Benzotrichloride Beryllium and Certain Beryllium Compounds
    Bischloroethyl Nitroso-Urea Bromodichloromethane
    1,3-Butadiene Butylated Hydroxyanisole
    Cadmium and Certain Cadmium Compounds Carbon Tetrachloride
    Chlorendic Acid Chlorinated Paraffins
    (C12, 60% Chlorine)
    Chloroform 1-(2-Chloroethyl)-3-Cyclohexyl-1-Nitrosourea (CCNU)
    3-Chloro-2-Methylpropene 4-Chloro-O-Phenylenediamine
    C.I. Basic Red 9 Monohydrochloride Cisplatin
    P-Cresidine Cupferron
    Dacarbazine DDT
    2,4-Diaminoanisole Sulfate 2,4-Diaminotoluene
    1,2-Dibromo-3-Chloropropane 1,2-Dibromethane (EDB)
    1,4-Dichlorobenzene 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine
    3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine-Dihydrochloride 1,2-Dichloroethane
    Dichloromethane (Methylene Chloride) 1,3-Dichloropropene (Technical Grade)
    Diepoxybutane Di(2-Ethylhexyl)Phthlate
    Diethyl Sulfate Diglycidyl Resorcinol Ether
    3,3'-Dimethoxybenzidine and 3,3'-Dimethoxybenzidine Hydrochloride 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene
    Dimethylcarbamall Chloride 3,3'-Dimethylbenzidine
    1,1'-Dimethylhydrazine Dimethyl Sulfate
    Dimethylvinyl Chloride 1,4-Dioxane
    Direct Black 38 Direct Black 6
    Epichlorohydrin Estrogens (Not Conjugated): Estrone
    Estrogens (Not Conjugated): Mestranol Ethyl Acrylate
    Ethylene Oxide Ethylene Thiourea
    Ethyl Methanesulfonate Formaldehyde (Gas)
    Hexachlorobenzene Hexamethylphosphoramide
    Hydrazine and Hydrazine Sulfate Hydrazobenzene
    Iron Dextran Complex Kepone7 (Chlordecone)
    Lead Acetate and Lead Phosphate Lindane and Other Hexachlorocyclohexane Isomers
    2-Methylaziridine (Propyleneimine) 4,4'-Methylenebris (2-Chloroaniline)
    4,4'-Methylenebris (N,N-Dimethyl)
    Benzamine
    4,4'-Methylenedianiline and its Di­hydro­chloride
    Methyl Methanesulfonate N-Methyl-N'-Nitro-N-Nitrosoguanidine
    Metronidazole Michler's Ketone
    Nitrilotriacetic Acid Nitrofen
    Nitrogen Mustard Hydrochloride 2-Nitropropane
    N-Nitrosodi-N-butylamine N-Nitrosodiethanolamine
    N-Nitrosodiethylamine N-Nitrosodimethylamine
    N-Nitrosodi-N-propylamine N-Nitroso-N-Ethylurea
    N-Nitrosomethylvinylamine N-Nitrosomorpholine
    N-Nitrosonornicotine N-Nitrosopiperidine
    N-Nitrosopyrrolidine N-Nitrososarcosine
    Norethisterone Ochratoxin A
    4,4'-Oxydianiline Phenacetin
    Phenazopyridine Hydrochloride Phenoxybenzamine Hydrochloride
    Phenytoin Polybrominated Biphenyls
    Polychlorinated Biphenyls Procarbazine Hydrochloride
    Progesterone 1,3-Propane Sulfone
    ?-Propiolactone Propylene Oxide
    Propylthiouracil Reserpine
    Saccharin Safrole
    Selenium Sulfide Silica, Crystalline (Respirable), Quartz, Cristobalite, Tridymite
    Streptozotocin Sulfallate
    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-P-Dioxin (TCDD) Tetrachloroethylene
    (Perchloroethioacetamide)
    Thioacetamide Thiourea
    Toluene Diisocyanate O-Toludine and O-Toluidine Hydrochloride
    Toxaphene 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol
    Tris(1-Axiridinyl) Phosphine Sulfide Tris(2,3-Dibromopropyl) Phosphate
    Urethane Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
    Benz [a] anthracene Benzo[b]fluoranthene
    Benzo[j]fluoranthene Benzo[k]fluoranthene
    Benzo[a]pyrene Dibenz[a,h]acridine
    Dibenz[a,j]acridine Dibenz[a,h]anthracene
    7H-Dibenzo[c,g]carbazole Dibenzo[a,e][a,h][a,i][a,l]pyrene
    Ideno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene5-methylchrysene 5-Methylchrysene