Environmental Health & Safety

Radiation Safety Standard Operating Guidelines



RADIATION: Information

Radiation is present throughout the environment. It can occur in nature, but can also be artificially produced in the form of microwaves and x-rays. Depending on how it's controlled radiation can be harmful or safe. For this reason, regulations and Standard Operating Guidelines (SOG) found with-in this manual shall be used to help protect persons from unnecessary or excess exposure.

Radiation is energy given off by matter in the form of rays or high speed particles, many forms of radiation such as light, heat and the above mentioned microwaves are used on a daily basis. X-rays as well as radio and television waves are also forms of radiation.

Radiation can be ionizing or non-ionizing depending on how it affects matter.

  • Non-ionizing radiation includes; visible light, heat, radar, microwaves and radiowaves.
  • Ionizing radiation, such as x-rays and cosmic rays, is more energetic than non-ionizing radiation. This type of energy breaks through matter, enough energy is left to break molecular bonds and create charged particles. These charged particles can damage plant and animal life and human cells. Ionizing radiation can also be used to treat cancer, sterilize equipment and identify fractures.

The sun and stars are responsible for cosmic radiation. The earth is a source of terrestrial radiation, and radioactive materials which are naturally-occurring, such as uranium, radium and thorium are found in rock and soil. Air contains radon and water contains trace amounts of radioactive material such as thorium and uranium. Organic matter, both plant and animal contain radioactive carbon and potassium. Even people have radiation internally, from radioactive potassium-40 and carbon-14.

We are generally more concerned about ionizing radiation because it is often the more harmful, when not used correctly. For this reason, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), from which most of this information comes from strictly regulates academic, commercial and industrial uses of radioactive material.

SCOPE:

The Amherst College Radiation Safety - Standard Operating Guidelines (SOG's) is a working document designed and amended as needed to assist faculty, staff, and students who store, transfer and use radioactive materials on campus or at other locations approved by the Radiation Use Committee (RUC).

These (SOG's) will describe our policies, procedures and training requirements to ensure a healthy and safe environment for the entire campus community, and is required for our license to use Radioactive material at Amherst College.

In cooperation with the Office of Environmental Health & Safety at the University of Massachusetts/Amherst, Amherst College will meet or exceed the requirements of the local, state, and federal regulatory agencies, including, but not limited to, the Massachusetts Department of Public Health – Radiation Safety, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and applicable sections of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA).

All Individuals working with radioactive materials and/or equipment at Amherst College shall do so under the direct supervision of a competent person (Principal Investigator) after obtaining the appropriate training, both classroom and practical. They shall be familiar with all applicable rules and regulations pertaining to their respective work and shall strive to meet our goal to limit exposure by following the policy of “As Low As Reasonably Achievable”, otherwise known as ALARA. The Principle Investigator is completely responsible for the purchase, use, internal transportation, storage, and disposal of all radioactive material on campus.

The UMASS/Amherst Radiation Safety Officer, under the direction of the Radiation Use Committee(s) (Amherst College and/or UMASS/Amherst) and their Chairpersons are authorized to take the appropriate steps necessary to ensure a healthy and safe working environment, as it pertains to radiation safety.

PURPOSE:

The purpose of the Radiation Safety (SOG's) is to provide faculty, staff and students who work with, or in close proximity to radioactive material and equipment with the knowledge, regulatory requirements and applicable training mandated by the local, state, and federal government, and the policies and procedures of the RUC’s at Amherst College and University of Massachusetts/Amherst. The College shall control the receipt, possession, use, transfer, storage and disposal of any radioactive material as required by our license in such a manner that the total does not exceed our ALARA policy.

APPLICABILITY:

The Amherst College Radiation Safety (SOG's) shall be familiar to and utilized by any person working with or in close proximity to radioactive materials and associated equipment including, but not limited to, faculty, staff, students, and authorized visitors.

This manual is designed to be a guide for faculty, staff and students using radioactive materials and equipment. It is not an all-inclusive document. If additional information is required, as it pertains to regulatory requirements, radioactive materials, devices, equipment, procedures or general health and safety, the principal investigator should contact the UMASS/Amherst Radiation Safety Officer or the Amherst College Office of Environmental Health and Safety.

DEFINITIONS:

Absorbed Dose is the energy imparted by ionizing radiation per unit mass of irradiated material. The units of absorbed does are the rad and the gray (Gy).

Accelerator is a device used for imparting a large amount of kinetic energy to electrically charged particles such as electrons or protons.

Activity is the number of nuclear transformations occurring in a given quantity of material per unit of time.

Activation is the process of causing a non-radioactive active substance to become radioactive by irradiation.

Acute is a short duration, high concentration, often dangerous exposure or effect to a contaminant, which could be, but is not limited to biological, chemical or radioactive materials.

Agreement State an agreement state is one to which the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) legally transfers authority to regulate possession and use of most types of radioactive materials based on the state’s agreement to maintain a comprehensive Radiation Control Program and to promulgate regulations that are compatible with, and at least as restrictive as, the NRC regulations.

  • Massachusetts is an “Agreement State”, and as such is required to regulate all sources of radiation, including Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM), by-products, special nuclear material, and radiation produced by equipment.

ALARA is an acronym of “As Low As Reasonably Achievable.” Make every reasonable effort to maintain exposures to radiation as far below the dose limits as is practical consistent with the purpose for which the activity is undertaken, taking into account the state of technology, the economics of improvements in relation to benefits to the public health and safety, and other societal and socioeconomic considerations, and in relation to utilization of ionizing radiation in the public interest.

Ampere is a unit of measurement of electric current. It is proportional to the quantity of electrons flowing through a conductor past a given point at one second. It is analogous to cubic feet for water flowing per second.

Annual Limit of Intake (ALI) is the derived limit for the amount of radioactive material taken into the body of an adult worker by inhalation or ingestion in one year. The ALI is the value of intake of a given radio nuclide in one year that would result in a committed effective dose equivalent to 5 rems (0.05 sievert) or a committed dose equivalent of 50 rems (0.5 sievert) to any individual organ or tissue.

Aqueous liquid is a solution of a water soluble or miscible material primarily containing water.

- Some liquids may be disposed of using a lab sink. Always contact Radiation Safety Services before using any laboratory sink for the disposal of any radioactive liquid.

Area of usage is a room or suite in which radioactive materials are used. It may have one or more work areas.

Atom is the basic component of all matter. The atom is the smallest particle of an element that has all of the chemical properties of that element. Atoms consist of a nucleus of protons and neutrons surrounded by electrons.

Atomic Number is the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom.

Atomic Mass Number is the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus on an atom.

Background Radiation is the radiation from cosmic sources; naturally occurring radioactive materials, including radon (except as a decay product of course or special nuclear material) and global fallout as it exists in the environment for the testing of nuclear explosive devices. “Background Radiation” does not include radiation for source, byproduct, or special nuclear materials, or devices regulated by the NRC or DHS.

Bequerel (Bq) is a unit of activity equal to one (1) disintegration per second. Since this is a very small unit, the typical values associated with samples used in the laboratory.

Bioassay is the determination of kinds, quantities or concentrations, and, in some cases, the locations of radioactive material in the human body, whether by direct measurement, called in vivo counting, or by analysis and evaluation of materials excreted or removed from the human body.

Bremsstrahlung is the secondary proton radiation produced by deceleration of charged particles passing through matter. (The process by which x-ray radiation is produced)

Cathode is the electrode on an electrochemical cell at which reduction occurs; the negative terminal of an electrolytic cell.

CFR is the Code of Federal Regulations.

CMR is the Code of Massachusetts Regulations.

Contamination is the radioactive material in any place where it is not desired.

Fixed Contamination is contamination that cannot be removed using common cleaning methods.

Removable Contamination is contamination on a surface that can be removed so that any remaining contamination is below allowable limits.

Personnel Contamination is contamination on a person’s body or clothing.

Controlled Area is an area, outside of a restricted area but inside the site boundary, access to which may be limited by the licensee for any reason.

CPM is counts per minute. Most radiation detectors display the number of events detected per unit of time. This can be converted to a measure of activity in dpm by dividing by the detection efficiency.

Curie (Ci) is a traditional unit for activity equal to 3.7E10 disintegrations per second. Since this is a very large unit, the typical value associated with samples used in the laboratory is the millicurie (X10-3). One microcurie (X10-6) equals 2,222,000 disintegrations per minute or 37,000 Bq.

Decay, Radioactive is the disintegration of a nucleus of an unstable nuclide by spontaneous emission of charged particles and/or photons.

Declared pregnant woman is a woman who has voluntarily informed her employer, in writing, of her pregnancy and the estimated date of conception.

Derived Air Concentration (DAC) is the concentration of a given radionuclide in air which, if breathed for a working year of 2,000 hours under conditions of light work, results in an intake of one ALI. For purpose of 105 CMR 120,000, the condition of light work is an inhalation rate of 1.2 cubic meter of air per hour for 2,000 hours in a year.

Derived Air Concentration-hour (DAC-hour) is the product of the concentration of radioactive material in air, expressed as a fraction of multiple of the derived air concentration for each radionuclide, and the time of exposure to that radionuclide, in hours. A licensee may take 2,000 DAC-hours to represent one ALI, equivalent to a committed effective dose equivalent of 5 rems (0.05 sievert).

Disintegration is a spontaneous nuclear transformation characterized by the emission of particle and/or photons from the nucleus of an atom. Nuclear disintegration is a random event. However, large numbers of nuclei of the same radionuclide can exhibit a halflife.

Dose or Radiation Dose is the generic term that means absorbed dose, dose equivalent, effective dose equivalent, committed dose equivalent, committed effective dose equivalent, or total dose equivalent, as defined elsewhere in this glossary.

Occupational dose is the dose received by an individual in a restricted area or in the course of employment on which the individual’s assigned duties involve exposure to radiation and to radioactive material from licensed and unlicensed sources of radiation, whether in the possession of the licensee or other person. Occupational dose does not include dose received from background radiation, as a patient from medical practices, from voluntary participation in medical research programs, or as a member for the general public.

Public dose is the dose received by a member of the public from exposure to radiation and to radioactive material released by a licensee, or to another source of radiation either within a licensee’s controlled area or in unrestricted areas. It does not include occupational dose or doses received from background radiation, as a patient from medical practices, or from voluntary participation in medical research programs.

Dose Rate is the dose measured over a period of time.

  • It is the concentration of a contaminant multiplied by the duration of human exposure.
  • Dose = Concentration x Time

Dosimeter is a device, usually in the form of a badge or ring, used to detect and measure radiation dose accumulated over a given time period.

DPH is the Department of Public Health. The Massachusetts agency that regulates radioactive materials and radiation devices at non-federal facilities in the state.

DPM is the disintegrations per minute (see also disintegration).

Effective Dose Equivalent or Effective Dose is the sum of the products of the dose equivalent to each organ or tissue and multiplied by their respective tissue weighting factors, and then added to the external whole body dose.

Efficiency is a measure of the probability that a particular radiation particle or photon will be counted by a radiation detection instrument. Efficiency is usually measured for hand-held survey meters by dividing the number of CPM observed by the meter with the number of expected DPM for a radionuclide in the same geometry. Some efficiency values are written in “percent” which is an artifact of multiplying the cpm per dpm value by 100.

Electromagnetic Radiation is the transfer of energy through matter and space by time changing electric and magnetic fields. Its range, often referred to as the electromagnetic spectrum extends from the longest radio waves to the shortest cosmic rays.

Electron is a stable elementary particle having rest mass of approximately 9.1091E-31 kg or 511 keV and an electrical charge equal to approximately 1.602E-19 C.

Electron Volt is a unit of energy equivalent to the energy gained by an electron when it is passed through a potential difference of one volt. Most particles or photons emitted by radioactive atoms are measured in kilo electron volts (keV) or mega electron volts (MeV). The electron binding energy for a hydrogen atom is approximately 13.6 eV.

Exposure is contact from an agent that has resulted in a dose by absorption, ingestion and/or injection.

  • Amount of exposure is dependant on the contaminant, the magnitude, frequency, duration and route of exposure.

External Dose is that portion of the dose equivalent received from radiation sources outside the body.

FDA is the US Food and Drug Administration.

Fission is a nuclear transformation characterized by the splitting of a nucleus into at least two other nuclei and the release of a relatively large amount of energy, usually as heat and nuclear radiation. Most nuclear reactors are designed so that neutrons need to be “thermalized” (slowed down by colliding with the hydrogen in water molecules) to be absorbed into nuclear fuel to maintain the fission process. All commercial nuclear power plants in the United States are designed to shut down the nuclear fission process as the core of the reactor heats up.

Fissile or Fissionable is a nuclide capable of undergoing nuclear fission by interacting with neutrons, usually slow (thermal) neutrons.

Fusion is the colliding of two or more nuclei with extremely high kinetic energy due to thermal agitation and high pressure to form a new nucleus with the release of a tremendous amount of thermal energy and nuclear radiation. This reaction is seen naturally in stars.

Geiger-Mueller Survey Meter (GM) (a.k.a - Geiger Counter) is a hand-held survey meter using a Geiger-Mueller (GM) probe to detect radiation. The GM probe is filled with a counting gas. Radiation detection takes place when ionizing radiation with sufficient energy to pass through thin film or window interacts with the gas. The radiation event interacting with the gas causes a cascade of ions to migrate to a charged electrode yielding a single pulse. The pulse is independent of the energy of the initial event or the number of primary ions produced. Because the low density of the gas, the GM is good for detecting alpha and beta radiation. Only high energy, high fluence rate gamma radiation fields are detectable with a GM.

Half-Life is when very large numbers of radioactive nuclei are decaying, the half-life is the time it takes to reduce a given number of radioactive atoms to one half of their original number.

  • For example, if a sample of a radio nuclide contains 1,000 atoms and has a half life of 14 days, in 14 days there would be 500 atoms remaining.

Hazardous Evaluation is an evaluation performed under the direction of Amherst College RUC that analyzes the potential risk of a project and imposes safety measures.

IDLH (Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health) - an atmosphere or location that poses an immediate risk to life or which may seriously compromise health.

Internal Deposition is a radioactive material from an inhalation, ingestion or injection that deposits in a body organ or enters the system.

Ion Chamber is an instrument designed to measure ionizing radiation in terms of the charge of electrically produced ions from radiation interaction occurring with a defined volume inside the detector.

  • Typically used for measuring gamma photons and x-rays.

Ionizing Radiation is alpha particles, beta particles, gamma rays, x-rays, neutrons, high-speed electrons, high-speed protons, and other particles capable of separating a target atom into an electron and a positive ion. In this manual, radiation does not include non-ionizing radiation, such as radio- or microwaves, or visible, infrared, or ultraviolet light.

Liquid Scintillation Counter (LSC) is an instrument where a radioactive sample is placed in a vial containing scintillation fluid. The vial is then moved into close proximity to photomultiplier tubes. The radiation in the sample interacts with the scintillation fluid and emits light. The light intensity is directly proportional to the radiation energy captured within the scintillation fluid. The light being emitted from the scintillation fluid is detected by the photomultiplier tubes. Through a series of electrical circuits and computer databases, a light pulse is converted to an electrical signal. Each electrical pulse is categorized and filed to yield a spectrum. The spectrum can be crossed-referenced to identify radio nuclides from a library of spectra.

LLRW - Low Level Radioactive Waste

MDPH - Massachusetts Department of Public Health


Microcurie (µCi) is one millionth of a curie equal to 37,000 Bq or 2,222,00 dpm.

Microwave is an electromagnetic radiation having a wavelength in the range of 1mm : 1m.

  • The the microwave region of the electromagnetic spectrum is between infrared and shortwave radio lengths.

Millicurie one thousandth of a curie equal to 37,000,000 Bq or 37 MBq.

Monitoring is the measurement of radiation levels, concentrations, surface area concentrations or quantities of radioactive material and the use of the resulting measurements to evaluate potential exposures and doses.

MRCP - Massachusetts Radiation Control Program

Nal Survey Meter is a survey meter that uses a scintillation probe composed of Nal(TI) crystal. When radiation interacts within the crystal, light is emitted at an intensity that is directly proportional to the energy that had been deposited in the crystal. A signal is sent to the meter by means of a photomultiplier tube. The pulse height emitted by the photomultiplier tube is directly proportional to the light emitted from the Nal(TI) crystal. However, the survey meter cannot be used as a spectrometer as it converts any pulse it sees to a single count. So the readout of this meter is in counts per minute (cpm). Like any hand-held survey meter, the Nal survey must be calibrated and an efficiency conversion factor calculated for the radioisotope of interest. The efficiency factor must be used to convert cpm to dpm.

Non-Ionizing Radiation are photons with energy less than 12.4eV, have insufficient energy to ionize matter and are therefore considered “non-ionizing”

  • Non-ionizing spectral region includes Ultraviolet (UV), Visible Infrared (IR), radiofrequency (RF) and extremely low frequency (ELF) regions.

Non-Stochastic Health Effect is a health effect, the severity of which varies with the dose and for which threshold is believed to exist.

  • Radiation-induced cataract formation or a sunburn from the sun’s ultraviolet radiation are examples of a non-stochastic effects. Another term for a non-stochastic effect is a “deterministic” effect.

Neutron is an elementary nuclear particle with no charge with the approximate mass of a photon.

NRC is the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the federal agency that regulates the use of radioactive byproduct materials. It does not have authority over accelerator-produced radioactive materials or x-rays.

OSHA - Occupational Safety and Health Administration

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) is safety equipment worn by an individual to help prevent personal contamination or exposure.

  • For example, using a synthetic rubber glove to stop a droplet of radioactive liquid contacting the skin
  • For example, using plastic safety glasses to stop beta radiation exposure to the eye

The minimum PPE required when handing any radioactive material at the laboratory bench is a lab coat, safety glasses with side shields and synthetic rubber gloves.

Photon is when a wave of electromagnetic energy exhibits the property of a particle, such as mass, when interacting with matter, such as when a photon ejects an electron from an atom by imparting all of its kinetic energy to the electron.

Proton is an elementary nuclear particle with a positive electric charge numerically equal to that of an electron and an approximate mass of 1.6726x10-27 kg.

Rad is a special unit of absorbed dose. One rad is equal to an absorbed dose of 100 ergs / gram or 0.01 joule / kilogram. (100 rads equal 1 gray)

Radiation is the transmission of energy in the form of electric and magnetic fields.

Nuclear energy is emitted from matter in the form of high energy electromagnetic waves of particles.

Alpha Radiation is a particle consisting of two protons and two neutrons bound together with no electrons emitted from the nucleus of an atom with a discrete energy. Since alpha particles are doubly charged, alpha particles are highly ionizing and stop within a very short distance. An alpha particle cannot penetrate the dead layer of skin on the human body or a piece of paper.

Beta Radiation is a particle with the mass and charge of an electron emitted from the nucleus of an atom. The particle may be either negatively charged or positively charged.

A positively charged beta particle is referred to as a “positron”. It is created from the transformation of a proton into neutron which ejects a positron plus a neutrino.

A negatively charged beta particle is referred to as a “beta particle”. It is created from the transformation of a neutron into a proton which ejects a beta particle plus an antineutrino.

The vast majority of beta radiation emitted from the nucleus of an atom is negatively charged. Beta radiation emitted from a quantity of a single radio nuclide varies in energy up to a beta maximum energy. The most probable beta energy emission occurs at one-third of the maximum beta energy. Beta radiation of a particular radio nuclide is associated with the maximum beta energy emitted.

Gamma Photon or Gamma Rays are short wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation emitted from the nucleus. Since a gamma photon has no charge, the probability of a gamma photon interacting with matter is proportional to the mass of material.

Neutron Radiation is radiation in the form of an elementary nuclear particle without electric charge which is to be ejected from the nucleus as well as by nuclear fission or nuclear fusion. The energy of a neutron is somewhat based on the speed with which it is ejected from the nucleus.

Thermal neutrons have established a thermal equilibrium with their environment. A neutron being absorbed by a stabile or non-radioactive nuclide can yield a radioactive atom.

X-ray Radiation is the electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths just shorter than those emitted by ultraviolet light. (Also know as “bremsstrahlung”) X-rays are produced using high voltage electricity in medical diagnostic and research devices. Devices that produce x-rays are not radioactive when the power is on or off.

Radiation Area is an area, accessible to trained individuals, in which radiation levels could result in an individual receiving a dose equivalent in excess of 0.005 rem (0.05 mSv) in 1 hour at 30 centimeters from the radiation source or from any surface that the radiation penetrates.

Radioactivity is the spontaneous emission of radiation, most often alpha or beta particles, which is often accompanied by gamma-rays, from the nucleus of an unstable radionuclide. The radionuclide is then charged or decays into the nuclide of a different element.

Radiation Disposal Sink is a special sink designated for the disposal of radioactive liquids. This sink must be inspected and approved by Radiation Safety Services before any radioactive liquid is poured down the drain. Special warning signs and labels must be placed on the sink and connected pluming. Only aqueous liquids may be poured down a sink that is being used for the disposal of radioactive liquids.

RM - Abreviation/acronym for Radioactive Material.

RCRA (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act) declares that, as a matter of national policy, the generation of hazardous waste is to be reduced or eliminated as expeditiously as possible, and land disposal should be the least favored method for managing hazardous wastes. In addition, all waste that is generated must be handled so as to minimize the present and future threat to human health and the environment. RCRA is designed to provide “cradle-to-grave” controls by imposing management requirements on generators and transporters of hazardous wastes and upon the owners and operators of treatment, storage and disposal (TSD) facilities.

REM (Roentgen Equivalent Man) is a special unit of dose equivalent. The equivalent in rems is numerically equal to the absorbed dose in rads multiplied by a quality factor. For example, since alpha radiation is doubly ionizing, a rad of alpha radiation striking lung tissue would be given a higher multiplier than a rad of gamma radiation striking the same type of lung tissue, thus resulting in a higher rem for the alpha radiation.

Restricted Area is any area that prohibits unauthorized access of person by posting of signage or other barriers, including locks, acceptable to the Massachusetts Department of Public Health and the NRC.

Roentgen (R) is a special unit of exposure for air. One roentgen equals 2.58E-4 C/kg in air at STP.

  • Many survey meters are calibrated in roentgen units.
  • One roentgen is approximately equivalent to one rad of gamma emitted from one MeV radiation source.

RSO is the Radiation Safety Officer. The individual responsible for managing the radiation safety or health physics program.

RSU - Abreviation/acronym for Radiation Use Comittee.

Sanitary Sewer is a system of public sewers for carrying off waste water and refuse, but excluding sewage treatment facilities, septic tanks, and leach fields owned or operated by the licensee or registrant. See also Radiation Disposal Sink.

Scintillation is the ability of certain crystals, plastics or fluids to emit light when radiation interacts within the scintillation medium. Typically, the intensity of the emitted light is directly proportional to energy of the ionizing radiation particle or photon absorbed in the medium.

Scintillation Detector is a device used to measure radiation from the light emitted from a scintillation crystal or plastic. A detector commonly used to measure gamma radiation is the sodium iodide (NaI) detector coupled to a Nal survey meter.

Sealed Source is a radioactive material that is completely encased in a non-reactive material, such as plastic, or embedded onto a metallic surface.

  • Because the radioactivity is bound to another material, sealed sources do not present a significant hazard under normal conditions.

“Shall”, “Must”, and “Will” indicate an absolute requirement to maintain compliance with regulations, Standard Operating Procedures (SOP’s), Amherst College and UMASS policies or directives from the RUC that ensure adequate radiation protection for employees.

Shield is any device used to reduce the exposure to radiation. The type and thickness of shielding material used depends on the type and intensity of the radiation field. One to

  • Lead shielding is used to reduce x-rays or gamma photon exposure.
Exposure Control Radiation

Stochastic Health Effect is a health effect that occurs randomly and for which the probability of the effect occurring, rather than its severity, is generally used. The dose-effect relationship is assumed to be a linear function without threshold.

  • Hereditary effects and the incidence of cancer are examples of the stochastic effects.
  • For regulatory purposes, “probabilistic effect” is an equivalent term.

Swipe Test is a method for detecting removable contamination by taking a sample of an area by wiping the surface with a cotton swab or filter paper. The sample is typically counted on a liquid scintillation counter.

  • A sample may be counted with another instrument which has been calibrated for the geometry of the sample position with relation to the radiation detector and if the geometry is reproducible from sample to sample.

Tritium (3H) is a hydrogen isotope containing one proton and two neutrons.

Unrestricted Area is an area, access to which is neither limited nor controlled by the licensee.

Work Area is a portion of a room or laboratory suite where radioactive materials are stored or handled. It is usually a single countertop.

Worker is an individual engaged in activities that are licensed by a regulatory agency and controlled by a licensee. Classification as a worker does not require an employer / employee relationship. Volunteers, students on clinical rotation, residents, staff, faculty, and visiting scientists and physicians whose duties include work in radiation or radioactive materials areas are considered workers.

Work permit is a written document, required by the NRC and the Massachusetts Department of Public Health that authorizes work to be performed in a controlled area such as a laboratory using radioactive material and/or equipment.

  • Work in areas that require the above referenced permit must be performed by personnel with appropriate, applicable training as required by MDPH, NRC and/or OSHA.

RESPONSIBILITIES AND ORGANIZATION OF THE RADIATION SAFETY PROGRAM

A. Amherst College Radiation Safety Program, in accordance with the policies, procedures, standard operating guidelines and regulatory requirements of the MDPH, NRC, OSHA and Amherst College Radiation Use Committee (RUC), shall protect the faculty, staff, students, visitors and the community from the negative effects of storing, transporting or using radioactive materials, including (NORM - naturally occurring radioactive material) and associated equipment.

As required, Amherst College has assembled a Radiation Use Committee, appointed a Chairperson and Radiation Safety Officer here-after referred to as the RSO and has adopted the appropriate health and safety protocols pertaining to the use of radioactive material known as ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable). The Amherst College Radiation Safety Program, in cooperation with the University of Massachusetts/Amherst Radiation Use Committee and RSO shall:

  • minimize the potential for incidents involving the use of radioactive materials
  • properly protect, store, and secure radioactive materials and equipment from unauthorized access
  • reduce all risks of exposure
  • properly label and warn any potentially affected personnel about the storage, transport and use of radioactive material
  • provide the necessary personal protective equipment needed to work with the material(s) and associated equipment
  • properly communicate the guidelines, management disposal practices and training to all necessary personnel
  • comply with all regulatory requirements of the local, state and federal government charged with the control and oversight of the Radiation Use Committee

B. ORGANIZATIONAL CHART

 

Amherst College President/Designee

 

Radiation Safety Officer

Radiation Use Committee

Environmental Health and Safety Manager

 

Laboratory Staff and Technicians

Chemical Hygiene Officer

Students

 

C. RADIATION USE COMMITTEE (RUC)

    1. Maintaining a radiation safety program
    2. authorizing or suspending the use of radioactive material at Amherst College
    3. establishing or modifying the policies and procedures for the Radiation Safety Program
    4. implementation of new rules, regulations and best management practices promulgated by local, state and federal governmental agencies
    5. enforcing compliance with the Radiation Safety Program and applicable rules and regulations
    6. laboratory safety audits of facilities using, storing and securing radioactive materials
    7. reviewing training protocols and documentation of same
    8. monitoring applicable records and ­­­­ applicable reports
    9. ensuring regulatory compliance
    10. assisting (as necessary) principal investigations with work involving the use, storage, transport and securing of radioactive material
    11. receive, peer review and act on all changes to existing applications for the use of RM

D. Radiation Use Committee (Representation)

The Radiation Use Committee (RUC) at Amherst College must include representation from;

  1. College Administration
  2. Human Resources
  3. Biology / Neuro Science
  4. Chemistry
  5. Geology / Earth Sciences
  6. Physics
  7. Radiation Safety Officer (UMASS / EHS)
  8. Chemical Hygiene Officer (CHO)
  9. Environmental Health and Safety (EHS)

The RUC must have a committee representative that serves as the chairperson, which is required for our license, paperwork, documentation, regulatory compliance and to provide provisional authorization between committee meetings.

-The RUC at Amherst College shall meet twice annually, typically

  1. November
  2. May
  • The Radiation Use Committee shall be considered a quorum if, and only if 50% of the membership is present.
  • The meeting minutes for each RUC meeting shall be prepared and distributed within a month of the meeting by the RSO or his/her designee.

- University of Massachusetts / Amherst RUC

  • Is composed of university professors and management with expertise in the use of radiation generating machines who peer review all radiation experimental protocols.
  • No radioisotopes or radiation generating machines may be used, ordered or transferred without written approval of the UMASS / Amherst RUC.
  • The authority for the RUC comes from the Massachusetts Radiation Control Program (MRCP) which licenses the use of radiation in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.

- Amherst College and University of Massachusetts / Amherst RUC’s

  • Both Amherst College and UMASS / Amherst RUC’s are required to maintain our respective licenses for the use, storage and transportation of radioactive materials and associated equipment.
  • Amherst College has adopted, as referenced here-in much of the information on Radiation Safety, based on regulatory requirements and Best Management Practices from the University of Massachusetts Radiation Safety Manual.
  • As agreed (by contract) Amherst College will utilize the services of the UMASS/Amherst Radiation Safety Officer for regulatory compliance and maintenance of the policies procedures and Best Management Practices referred here-in.

E. RADIATION SAFETY OFFICER

1. Radiation Safety Officer

The Primary Radiation Safety Officer for Amherst College and the University of Massachusetts Amherst shall be one-in-the same, as stipulated within, and as agreed by contract, renewed annually.

Amherst College also has a license for use of an XRF unit, as it pertains to lead paint analysis, which is held by the Amherst College EH&S Manager.

2. The Radiation Safety Officer (RSO) (or designee) shall;

  1. assist Amherst College and the Radiation Use Committee with the continuous development, implementation and maintenance of the Radiation Safety Program.
  2. ensure compliance with all local, state and federal regulations, both existing and newly promulgated, and (when possible) notify the Amherst College RUC of any upcoming regulatory changes or additions.
    1. monitor the purchase, use, storage and disposal of Radiation Material.
    2. monitor the use, calibration, and maintenance of the equipment (portable and stationary) used for radioactive materials.
    3. All equipment must be calibrated at least annually, unless otherwise specified by manufacturer.
    4. maintain all appropriate records for all personnel (faculty, staff and students) using materials and equipment, including but not limited to
      • Medical Records
      • Training Content and dates
      • Badges
      • Radioisotopes used
      • Laboratory Inspections
      • Personnel monitoring
      • Incident investigations involving radioactivity and regulatory non-compliance.
      • testing of equipment, including leak and sealed source, as required by the MRCP.
      • maintain all applicable records as required

Databases, spread sheets or other documentation should be shared with the Amherst College RUC twice annually for evaluation and review.

  1. provide Emergency Response for leaks, spills and other contamination known or suspected.
  2. have the responsibility and authority during a suspected or confirmed emergency to take prompt remedial action with the Amherst College Office of Environmental Health and Safety, acting as the owner’s representative.
    • should such independent action be required, the Radiation Safety Officer shall promptly report details of the situation to the Radiation Safety Committee, Environmental Health and Safety, Campus Police, and the department head and/or dean of the respective area.
  3. establish and oversee operating safety, emergency, and ALARA procedures, and review them at least annually.
  4. oversee and approve the training program for appropriate and effective health and safety radiation protection.
  5. ensure that required radiation surveys and leak tests are performed and documented including corrective measures when levels of radiation exceed established limits.
  6. ensure that personnel monitoring is used properly by occupationally-exposed personnel, that records are kept and that notifications are made as required.
  7. investigate and report known or suspected cases of radiation exposure to an individual or radiation level detected in excess of limits and each theft or loss of source(s) of radiation, to determine the cause(s), and to take steps to minimize a recurrence.
  8. investigate and report each known or suspected case of radioactive material(s) exposure to the environment in excess of limits.
  9. have a knowledge of management policies and administrative procedures of the license.
  10. review Principal Investigator applications, protocols and possession limits, and report findings to the Radiation Use Committee Chairperson or Radiation Use Committee for approval.
  11. ensure the proper labeling, storing, transporting and use of sources of radiation, storage, and/or transport containers.
  12. perform inventories in accordance with the license application is submitted.
  13. ensure compliance with these rules, the conditions of the license, and the operating, safety, and emergency procedures of the license.
  14. provide assistance with the Hazardous Waste disposal program for radioactive materials.

The Office of Radiation Safety at the University of Massachusetts/Amherst may be audited, as part of a quality assurance program. The audit will be performed by a 3rd party, who will evaluate the program and regulatory requirement compliance.

  • Conduct inspections of all laboratories, including those used for the storage and use of radioactive materials, including (NORM) naturally occurring radioactive material and associated equipment.
  • Respond to all laboratory emergencies such as leaks, spills and possible contamination.

All emergencies, regardless of type or security shall be reported to the Amherst College Campus Police at (413) 542-2111.

  • Accompany all local, state and federal regulatory agencies, including the Massachusetts Department of Public Health and the Nuclear Regulatory Agency during inspections and investigations.
  • Assist faculty, staff and students with programmatic requirements, including security, storage, transportation and use of radioactive materials and equipment and the proper disposal of hazardous waste.

F. CHEMICAL HYGIENE OFFICER

The Amherst College Chemical Hygiene Officer shall assist the office of Environmental Health and Safety by assuming the responsibility of EH&S Manager (see section G) in his/her absence, or when otherwise requested.

G. VISITORS
Any visitor or a laboratory that use radioactive material must abide by all radiation safety regulations and College (SOG’s) which include the use of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE). The P.I. assumes complete responsibility for all visitors and their health and safety.

REGULATORY REQUIREMENTS

Amherst College shall, by regulatory requirements follow the local, state and federal laws, codes, rules and regulations of;

  1. The Nuclear Regulatory Commissions 10 CFR 20.
  2. Massachusetts Department of Public Health, Radiation Control 105 CMR 120.
  3. Any and all interpretations of the regulations must be in writing from the General Counsel, as required by the NRC.
  4. All uses of radioactive material, radiation generating equipment and machines shall be conducted in accordance with the above state and federal requirements, as well as other applicable agencies which may have oversight for certain operations involving radiation producing equipment, accelerator-produced radionucleotides or discharges of radioactive material to the environment.
    • Air and liquid effluents 105 CMR 120.296
    • X-ray Equipment for research 105 CMR 120.400

Regulatory agencies may also impose additional conditions, restrictions and requirements that are more stringent that those in published regulations, in the licenses or permits that are issued to Amherst College.

  • The imposed conditions, restrictions and requirements, placed upon the license have the same authority and weight of a law as the requirements contained in the MRCP and NRC regulations.
  • The Amherst College license for radioactive materials is kept on file within the Office of Environmental Health and Safety at Amherst College and the University of Massachusetts/Amherst
  • Our MCRP license is a Broad Scope license.
  • Type A – allows the RUC and RSO to Act Independent of direct MRCP oversight.

It permits Amherst College to;

  • Peer-review research protocols involving radioactive material, instead of sending each protocol to the MRCP for prior experiment approval.
  • Type A license also requires all Amherst College research and support personnel to act in a responsible and self-inspecting manner, and to report any issues of non-compliance to the RSO or RUC.
  • It is the responsibility of all RUC members, authorized personnel and Principal Investigators to follow and enforce the requirements identified both within the codes and here-in.
  • Any person previously approved as an authorized User or Approved P.I. is personally responsible for reporting any known or potential violation of the regulation and our license conditions, as well as the radiation safety policies, procedures and SOG’s to the RSO or Amherst College Environmental Health and Safety, in the absence of the RSO.

License Regulations and Conditions

  • Amherst College must have an RUC and RSO to maintain a license for the storage, transfer and use of radioactive material.
  • Radioisotopes shall not be used on humans, or in animals presented as food, post the introduction of radioisotopes into the animal.
  • All protocols, in accordance with our license must be submitted to the RUC for their review and approval before the protocol or procedure can be used.
  • The RSO must keep the experimental protocols and SOG’s on file, and provide the RUC with a copy.
  • All violations must be reported to the MRCP by the RSO and/or the RUC as soon as they occur.

RADIATION PROTECTION

  • Amherst College, because of our license agreement shall develop, document and implement a Radiation Safety Program that meets the requirements of the regulations for the type of activities we perform.
  • The College shall use, to the extent practical, the policies, procedures, standard operating guidelines, engineering controls and equipment based on prudent radiation safety principles as required to meet the ALARA Objective.
  • Amherst College shall, at least annually, review the Radiation Safety Program and make any changes necessary to meet or exceed the regulatory requirements, and further attempt to lessen any known or potential risk, well below the ALARA standards.

Any condition, incident, injury or deficiency, which is noted by the PI, the laboratory personnel, a safety coordinator, the CHO or their designee, such as...

  • exceeding a dose constraint, shall immediately report same to the P.I. or their designee, who must then notify
    • Radiation Safety Officer (UMASS/Amherst)
    • Environmental Health and Safety (Amherst College)

ALARA (AS LOW AS REASONABLY ACHIEVABLE)

Amherst College is committed to maintaining radiation exposure to faculty, staff, students, visitors, outside contractors, emergency responders, the general public and the environment at ALARA levels. This commitment from the Administration of Amherst College provides the basis for the entire Radiation Safety Program, described in this manual and within our Standard Operating Guidelines (SOG’s). In addition, both the Amherst College and UMASS/Amherst RUC(s) have set an ALARA level for all users of radiation on campus below regulatory requirements to further lower the risks.

  • Before any person is permitted, regardless of type of work, to exceed the dose limits referenced by ALARA, written permission from the Amherst College RUC must be obtained.
    • Administrative Controls
    • Proper housekeeping practices
    • Engineering Controls
    • Personal Protective Equipment
    • Appropriate training, including classroom, practical and refresher training.
    • Inspections, both general laboratory and radiation specific.

DOSE LIMITS

On average, Americans receive a dose of about 3 rems (3000 millirems) each year from natural background radiation. Most of this comes from radon in the air with smaller amounts coming from cosmic rays and the earth itself. We also receive about 0.06 rems (60 millirems) annually from other sources of radiation such as medical, commercial and industrial sources, with medical being the largest contributing factor, as an example: x- rays.

Radiation Warning
  • Large doses, such as 50 rem seldom occur. However, high concentrations over a short period of time can significantly damage or destroy many cells, tissues and organs.
  • Persons exposed to approximately 500 rems of radiation at one time would most likely die without proper and timely medical treatment.
  • A single dose of 100 rems may cause nausea, and reddening skin, but recovery is most likely.

Amherst College must control occupational dose to our faculty, staff, students and other laboratory personnel or support staff to the following levels.

An annual limit, which is more limiting of;

  • The total effective dose equivalent being equal to 5 rems; or
  • The sum of the deep-dose equivalent and the committed dose equivalent to any individual organ or tissue other than the lens of the eye being equal to 50 rems.
  • The annual limits to the lens of the eye, to the skin of the whole body, and to the skin of the extremities, which are:
  • A lens dose equivalent of 15 rems
  • A shallow-dose equivalent of 50 rem to the skin of the whole body or to the skin of any extremity.
  • Doses received in excess of the annual limits, including doses received during accidents, emergencies, and planned special exposures, must be subtracted from the limits for planned special exposures that the individual may receive during the current year and during the individuals lifetime.
  • The assigned deep-dose equivalent must be for the part of the body receiving the highest exposure. The assigned shallow-dose equivalent must be the dose averaged over the contiguous 1-square centimeters of skin receiving the highest exposure. The deep-dose equivalent, lens-dose equivalent, and shallow-dose equivalent may be assessed from surveys or other radiation measurements for the purpose of demonstrating compliance with the occupational dose limits, if the individual monitoring device was not in the region of highest potential exposure, or the results of individual monitoring are unavailable.

Derived Air Concentration (DAC) and Annual Limit on Intake (ALI) values may be used to determine the individual’s dose and to demonstrate compliance with the occupational dose limits.

  • In addition to the annual dose limits the licensee shall limit the soluble uranium intake by an individual to 10 milligrams in a week in consideration of chemical toxicity.
  • The licensee shall reduce the dose that an individual may be allowed to receive in the current year by the amount of occupational dose received while employed by any other person.

TRAINING

Prior to the start of any work involving the storage, transportation or use of radioactive material at Amherst College personnel (faculty, staff, students) must receive training specific to the work they will be involved in.

The authorized P.I. assumes the responsibility for all personnel in the laboratory.

  1. The P.I. shall arrange for all necessary training through the RSO or their designee at the Office of Environmental Health and Safety, University of Massachusetts/Amherst.
  2. For the health, safety and well-being of all personnel in a laboratory using radioactive materials, as required by MRCP, NRC, and OSHA, training must be provided.
  3. Training must begin within a classroom.
  4. Contact: UMASS/Amherst EH&S (413) 545-2682
  5. Attendance is required.
  6. Persons shall then read and understand the Amherst College Radiation Safety manual, and shall ask questions of the P.I.
  7. Become familiar with all associated equipment.
  8. Shall receive hands-on training, by or through the P.I. or competent laboratory personnel.

Training and training records must be reviewed, and be made available to the RSO, or any inspector from the MCRP, NRC, OSHA or a 3rd party audit company, as referenced above.

RADIATION LABORATORY – NEW FACILITY

An Authorized Principle Investigator (API) shall, before any work with radioactivity is initiated;

  1. be properly trained for the type of radioactive work to be conducted within the facility.
  2. The training must be equipment, isotope, research and/or work specific and shall involve all applicable personnel.
  3. Training must be arranged by the RSO.
  4. Prior to being designated as an API, the faculty member must demonstrate to the RSO the knowledge and capability in radiation safety fundamentals, any research or site specific type of radioactive work, and a general knowledge of the policies, procedures, regulations and SOG’s identified within this manual.
  5. have detailed radiation safety procedures for each experiment or operation which shall be experiment specific, established by the API and approved by the RSO.
  6. the P.I. must be pre-approved by the RUC, in order to be considered “authorized”.
  7. If work involving radioactive materials or equipment must start before authorization by the RUC, the RSO can grant temporary API status, with full approval to be issued at the next RUC meeting.
  8. If radioactive materials work must start before authorization by the RUC, then the RSO can grant API status.
  9. for new or altered experimentation involving radioactive material, the API shall consult with the RSO on technical guidance to determine the proper methods for the safe handling, use, storage and disposal of the above referenced material.
  10. A detailed procedure shall be submitted to the RSO for review.
  11. The RUC and RSO will review the submitted information for approval, as required by our license.
  12. when the RUC has approved the application, a permit will be issued to the API.
  13. The permit shall be reviewed and updated every 2 years, as required.

LABORATORY CONTROLS AND SECURITY

Access to radioactive materials is controlled and regulated by local, state and federal requirements and by administrative procedures.

Laboratories in which radioactive materials are used shall be formally approved by the RUC and/or the RSO, depending on the hazards and level of activity, as indicated by the API.

  1. If additional, previously unauthorized areas of the laboratory are required for work involving radioactive materials and/or equipment, the additional areas must be approved by the RSO.
  2. The protocols also require the API to delete unnecessary areas of the laboratory, and report same to the RSO.

Radioactive laboratories must be properly posted with the required signage, as specified by the MRCP and the NRC.

  1. Laboratory Safety Information Cards must be posted and updated annually.
  2. Laboratories that are posted for radioactivity can be used for non-radioactive work. However radioactive materials can not be placed or used in unauthorized areas.

Radioactive Materials shall not be left unattended or unsecured in the laboratory or other authorized areas.

  • Radioisotopes and other radioactive materials and equipment must be;
    • in close proximity to, or under the control of an authorized person
    • located in a secured (locked drawer or refrigerator), or in a laboratory or similar facility that can be locked to prevent all unauthorized access

Controlled Laboratories are laboratory and other similar areas that are posted and monitored for the purpose of protecting faculty, staff, students and visitors from exposure to radiation and radioactive materials. Controlled laboratories are specifically designated for work with radionuclides or radiation producing equipment in which...

  1. Laboratory personnel could potentially receive a radiation exposure in excess of 10% of the occupational worker limits
  2. Persons under the age of 18 shall not be exposed to radiation
  3. Pregnant women (known or suspected) shall be evaluated by their primary care physician and be given prior permission to work with radiation exposures at or below 500 mrem over the course of her pregnancy.
  4. Airborne concentrations of radioactive material could result in an intake in excess of 10% of the ALI as published by the appropriate regulatory agency.
  5. Unsealed radioactive materials could be responsible for surface contamination levels that could exceed ALARA limits.
  6. The experimental protocols or procedures could result in radioactive material cross-contamination.

Restricted Areas
A Restricted Area is a Controlled Area where access must be restricted to only authorized, trained personnel, approved by the RUC. Restricted areas shall be;

  • monitored by an authorized person in the laboratory, whenever the radioactive materials are not secured.
  • locked to prevent all unauthorized access.

In restricted areas, such as those that contain low level radioactive waste, decay in storage areas, radiosynthesis, or iodination laboratories, only authorized personnel shall be permitted.

  1. Restricted areas have, or could have the ability to exceed a dose of 100 mrem.
  2. Radiation levels may be present that result in an external dose of 5mrem/hr at 300cm from any sources of radiation.
  3. Radiation levels may be present that could result in a dose of 10 rem at 30cm from any sources of radiation.
  4. Radiation levels may be present that could result in a dose of 500rem at 100cm from any sources of radiation.

All radioisotopes storage locations and those laboratories containing radiation producing equipment which are posted as HIGH RADIATION AREA or RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION shall be locked at all times when the room or facility is not attended by authorized or trained personnel.

  • The above referenced personnel must be familiar with hazards, instrumentation and campus emergency procedures.

It is the responsibility of the laboratory personnel to maintain control of the storage, transportation, use and proper disposal of all radioactive material and equipment, and to limit access to the laboratory when radioactive material is in use or otherwise not secured.

  • The ultimate responsibility for the laboratory, the radioactive materials, associated equipment and site security rests with the API.

Laboratory Labels, Posting and Warnings

  1. All areas, laboratories, storage facilities and associated locations that contain radioactive material, equipment or machines and/or radiation levels in excess of state and federal limits shall be posted with the correct warnings
  2. Doors to the laboratory and areas where radioactive materials are stored or used shall be properly signed, and will include, but not limited to;
    • bench tops/cabinets
    • equipment
    • fume hoods
    • refrigerator/freezers
    • sinks
  3. labels shall be affixed, as necessary to;
    • bottles
    • containers
    • secondary containment
  4. Radiation labels, signs, stickers and warnings shall not be used for any purpose other than to identify a radiation area or hazard.
  • Radiation labels, signs, stickers and warnings shall meet the requirements of the local, state and federal regulatory agencies.

Laboratory Doors shall be posted with this signage:
“CAUTION” or “DANGER” "RADIATION AREA".

  • If external exposure could exceed 5 mrem/hr at 30 cm from any source of radiation
  • For these areas, laboratory doors shall be posted with this warning and laboratory personnel are required to wear personal radiation monitoring devices, provided by the RSO or their designee.

Laboratory Doors shall be posted with this signage:
“CAUTION” or “DANGER” “HIGH RADIATION AREA”.

  1. If external exposure could exceed 100 mrem/hr at 30 cm from any source of radiation
  2. For these areas, laboratory personnel are required to wear assigned personal radiation monitoring devices and be under the supervision of the RSO or their designee.
  3. CAUTION or DANGER AIRBORNE RADIOACTIVE AREA shall be posted at all entrances where exposures could exceed 10% of the ALI by the appropriate regulatory agency.
  4. CAUTION or DANGER CONTAMINATION AREA shall be posted at all entrances to areas where exposures could exceed 10% of the ALI by the appropriate agency.
  5. NO radioactive sign posting is required for entrances to an area, laboratory or room in which a sealed source with a radiation level of less that 5 mrem/hr from a container or housing at 30 cm is present.
  6. NO radioactive sign posting shall be used for areas, laboratories, benches, cabinets or rooms, unless the area requires the signage
  7. Over signage or improper use of radioactive materials signs or warnings is an NRC violation.
  8. Access to radioactive materials and radiation producing equipment is controlled by administrative and physical requirements
  9. Labels shall be affixed to all containers or radioactive materials in laboratories storage and waste areas.
  10. Bottles, cans, drums, pails and secondary containment must be labeled in a manner that displays the radiation symbol and appropriate warnings.
  • name of the material
  • Chemical abbreviations and symbols are no longer permitted.
  • any applicable hazards.
  • The labels must contain all of the appropriate information;
  • any other appropriate information required by the RSO or designee.

NOTICES OF VIOLATION

In order to maintain our license to order, store, transport, and use radioactive materials, Amherst College shall reduce potential for regulatory non-compliance whenever possible.

Examples:

  1. Repeat violations (3 or more) within a consecutive 12 month period
  2. Not securing radioactive material and/or the laboratory to prevent unauthorized access
  3. Not identifying or training new personnel
  4. Failing to report known or potential contamination
  5. Failure to repost leaks or spills
  6. Not wearing personal protective equipment such as:
    • Safety eyewear
    • Laboratory coat, when necessary
    • Appropriate badges (filn, ring, etc.)
  7. Failure to properly record disposal or radioactive waste
  8. Failure to perform equipment calibration
  9. Not performing laboratory or personal surveys
  10. Not posting or labeling areas, containers, equipment, machinery, rooms, or otherwise maintaining same
  11. Consuming, placing, or storing food and or beverages in the laboratory

INVENTORY, PURCHASES, ACQUISITIONS BY TRANSFER AND SHIPMENTS

  • The API is approved by the RSO or RUC to possess RM within specified limits and only in the locations stated in the “Request to Use Radioisotope or Radiation Generating Machines.”
  • X-ray generating units require special permits from the MRCP. It is in absolute requirement that the API contact the RSO prior to the purchase of an x-ray unit.

Procedures for Receiving and Opening Packages

  1. API who expect to receive a package containing quantities of radioactive material shall make arrangements to receive the package by contacting the Office of Radiation Safety Environmental Health and Safety University of Massachusetts/Amherst at 545-2682.
  2. The UMASS/Amherst Radiation Safety Department shall, as expeditiously as possible, deliver the requested radioactive material package to the appropriate laboratory at Amherst College.
  3. Upon receipt of the radioactive materials package at the Office of Environmental Health and Safety at the University of Massachusetts/Amherst, the RSO or their designee shall; monitor the extended surface of a “White I”, “Yellow II”, or “Yellow III” labeled package for potential contamination, unless the package contains only radioactive material in the form of a gas or in a special form as defined in 10 CFR 71.4.
    • monitor the external surfaces of a “White I”, “Yellow II” or a “Yellow III” labeled package for radiation levels unless the package contains quantities of radioactive material that are less then or equal to the Type A quantity. As defined in section 10 CFR 71.4, and
    • monitor all packages known to contain radioactive material for radioactive contamination and radiation levels if there is evidence of degradation of package integrity, such as those that show evidence of crush, damage, leak or wetness.
  4. Monitoring must take place as soon as possible, after delivery, but shall not occur more than 3 hours after it is received by the Office of Environmental Health and Safety at the University of Massachusetts.
  5. If a problem with the package is identified, the Radiation Safety Office shall notify the carrier and the NRC Operations Center (301) 816-5100.

Purchasing Radioisotopes or Receiving Radioisotopes From Another Institution

The API or designee notifies Radiation Safety by email that a purchase has been made. The following information must be contained in the email:

  1. Radioisotope
  2. Activity
  3. Chemical composition
  4. Use location
  5. Storage location
  6. Vendor or institution that the sample will be shipped from

Note: Samples from international origins may require special paperwork.

  • The API or designee places the order, ensuring the radioisotope’s activity is within the limits granted in the protocol approved by the RUC.
  • When the package arrives at Radiation Safety, the following are performed:
    1. The package is inspected for damage and leaks as per MRCP regulations
    2. The Package is surveyed for contamination on the shipping container
    3. The contents are checked against the limits on the approved protocol
    4. An inventory tracking form is generated
    5. Removes and surveys the inner container holding sample
    6. Get rid of packaging
    7. The package is delivered to a location specified by the API.
  • An Authorized User or API performs the following:
    • Confirms the sample is what was ordered
    • Secures the sample

Transferring RM Between Labs on Campus

When an Authorized User or API borrows a radioactive sample, transfers a radioactive sample to another API or moves an instrument that contains or generates RM, the following must be performed:

  • Review the approved protocol to confirm that the RM and/or activity level is allowed at the location where it is to be used.
  • Notify Radiation Safety by email of the following, as applicable:
    1. Radioisotope or radiation emitted
    2. Activity or instrument
    3. Chemical composition or sealed source
    4. Use location
    5. Storage location
      • The API must add or remove the sample or source that was borrowed or transferred from the appropriate inventory tracking form.
      • Any RM inventory must be physically transferred to another API or to the RSO prior to leaving Amherst College or transferring to another institution. A transfer memo stating the transferred quantities must be sent to the RSO. All posted work areas and apparatus must be surveyed and must be cleaned according to the decommissioning standards put into practice by Radiation Safety.

Purchasing Radiation Generating Machines

The API must contact the RSO prior to purchasing any radiation generating machine. Once the machine arrives on campus, the RSO or designee will inspect the installation of the equipment/instrument. Radiation Safety will issue dosimeters as appropriate. Radiation Safety will perform periodic leak tests as required by the MRCP.

Shipping

Note: It is an absolute requirement that under no circumstances will Amherst College academic staff, support staff or students transport RM in private vehicles, either around campus or off-campus.

RM being shipped off-site shall conform to all applicable state, federal, and international regulatory requirements. To ship RM, the following must be performed:

  1. The API must contact the RSO prior to committing to ship a sample so the RSO can review the radiation license of the recipient. If the recipient’s radiation license does not meet the qualifications for possessing the sample, the shipment must be cancelled.
  2. The API is responsible for ensuring that the shipment is properly described.
  3. The API will package the sample as appropriate for it to survive shipment.

Note: the API must contact the RSO prior to packing the sample to ensure that the packaging and any materials needed to ensure the survival of the shipment, such as dry ice, meet government regulations for air or ground transport.

  1. The API must provide the proper containers used in the shipment.
  2. The API may work with the RSO to have Radiation Safety package sample.
  3. The RSO or designee will label, survey and inspect the package prior to shipment. The API is also responsible for updating the inventory for the next report, which is submitted to the RSO.

Any Radiation Safety personnel who offer RM packages for commerce (sign shipping papers) shall attend an appropriate DOT, IATA, RCRA courses within the previous 12 month period and be certified with respect to the course contents.

LABORATORY DECOMMISSIONING

Laboratories that will no longer be used for radioactive material work must be properly decommissioned.

API’s are not permitted (by code) to simply transfer a radioactive materials laboratory, facility or storage area to another P.I., at time of leave or retirement.

Badge Dosimeters measure stochastic deep dose to the body organs from external radiation as well as the non-stochastic dose to the eyes and skin.

Badges must be worn on the collar of the required laboratory coats to measure eye dose.

  • Badge dosimeters are sensitive down to 1 millirem, which is close to background radiation levels.
  • Ring Dosimeters measure the non-stochastic dose to the extremities, such as the fingers.
  • Ring dosimeters must be worn under gloves.
  • Ring dosimeters are sensitive down to 30 millirems.
  1. Tritium (H-3) users are not issued dosimeters because tritium beta particles do not have enough energy to penetrate dead layers of skin.
  2. Dosimeters are provided by a company selected by the RSO and RUC. This company reads and records the dosimeter data in accordance with accreditation requirements established by regulatory requirements such as the National Institute of Science and Technology (NIST) under the National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program (NVLAP).
  3. Dosimeters are exchanged monthly by UMASS/Amherst Radiation Safety Services.
  • Laboratory personnel must identify and make easily accessible the appropriate dosimeters and their locations for exchange by the RSO or designee.

Dosimeters must be protected from cross-contamination.

  • Keep badge and ring dosimeters separate.
  • Contaminated dosimeters will give false-positive readings, because it continues to be irradiated after work has been completed.

If a dosimeter reading exceeds ALARA limits,

  • The RUC will require the user to cease work using radionuclides or radiation generating equipment
  • this restriction will remain in effect until the cause of the elevated reading can be determined, and
  • steps are incorporated to limit the future exposures to ALARA levels.

The API must notify the RSO (in advance) about the need to decommission the laboratory. The decommissioning process, or taking the laboratory off-line must occur in full, prior to the leave or retirement of the API.

In order to decommission the API must;

  • Notify the RSO or designee of the intended departure or close-out of the laboratory.
  • Make sure that all containers (product and waste) are properly labeled and contained, including warning labels.
  • Have radioactive materials removed by the RSO or their designee.
  • Have the laboratory or areas of possible contamination monitored or tested for cleaning and maintenance purpose

After the area, laboratory or room has been inspected, all radioactive materials have been removed, and the final contamination survey has been completed and passed criteria by the RSO or their designee, the RSO shall issue a document releasing the laboratory or equipment for unrestricted use, and shall file all appropriate documentation indicating such with a copy of the same provided to the Amherst College RUC.

  • Radiation warning labels, signs, tape or other markings shall only be removed by the RSO/Radiation Safety Department. This includes all stickers and other similar markings from doors, benches, fume hoods, instruments, lab ware or other equipment used for radioactive materials work.
  • These documents and records must be maintained for regulatory compliance.

Under no circumstances should equipment with radioactive materials labels or tags be removed from the laboratory or associated areas without having first been properly monitored/surveyed, and approved by the RSO, or their designee.

  • Initial surveys and decontamination of all equipment including, refrigerators/freezers, incubators, lab ware, instruments, apparatus etc., must be performed by the laboratory personnel, under the direction of the API.
  • The RSO or their designee shall confirm by the external survey and wipe test that the radioactivity levels, if any, are below acceptable levels and is ALARA.
  • Warning labels, stickers etc. will then be removed by the RSO or designee.

RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS – INVENTORIES

Sealed Radioactive Sources

  • Any radioactive materials that are permanently bonded or fixed in a capsule or matrix designed to prevent the release or dispersal of such radioactive material under the most difficult conditions that may be encountered during normal use and handling.
  • Sealed sources controlled under our license must be inventoried and tested for leakage by the RSO or their designee in a manner specified below:

Beta/Gamma emitters (>100 mCi)

  • every 6 months, or if container is physically damaged or otherwise compromised.

Alpha emitters (>10 mCi)

  • every 3 months, or if container is physically damaged or otherwise compromised.

Sealed sources exhibiting leakage (>0.005 mCi)

  • must be removed by RSO
  • Reports must be submitted to the Massachusetts Radiation Control Program, as required. The report to the MRCP must include:
    1. Source serial number
    2. Isotope
    3. Source activity
    4. Leak test result , and
    5. Any corrective actions

Records for the types of radionuclides and activities present at Amherst College are updated every 6 months by the RSO or the UMASS Radiation Safety Office, unless additional inventories are required by the Massachusetts Radiation Control Program.

  • A sealed source leak test, if performed by the RSO, qualifies as an inventory. The results of which must be forwarded to the Amherst College RUC.
  • A copy of the Inventory must also be received by the Amherst College RUC, which will be kept on file by the Amherst College Office of Environmental Health and Safety.

The reports shall provide an accounting of:

  • Any radioactive material received
  • Transferred and disposed of radioactive material
  • The decay of current inventories
  • Previous periods activity
  • Receipts
  • Reported transfers from other API’s
  • Inventory discrepancies shall be investigated by the RSO or designee. The records, notes and corrective actions will be updated as required.

Radioactive Waste Disposal

  • The disposal of Radioactive Material shall, under the supervision of the licensee only occur;
  • by transfer to an authorized recipient, such as to the Radiation Safety Office at University of Massachusetts
  • by decay in storage
  • by release of effluents in accordance with the regulatory requirements
  • The person or company must be specifically authorized to receive the radioactive waste for
  • treatment prior to disposal, or
  • treatment or disposal by incineration, or
  • decay in storage;
  • disposal at a licensed land disposal facility,
  • disposal at a geological repository

Radioactive Waste Disposal – by Sewer

Amherst College, under the direction of the UMASS/Amherst RSO may discharge licensed radioactive material into the sanitary sewer if the following conditions exist;

  • the material is readily soluble in water, and the quantity of licensed or other radioactive material that the college releases into the sewer in one month divided by the average monthly volume of water released into the sewer by the college does not exceed the concentration listed by the NRC
    • If no other hazardous material is present in which it would then fall under RCRA.
    • If more than 1 radionuclide is released, the following conditions must be met;

      The college must determine the fraction of the limit imposed by the NRC, which is represented by the discharge into sanitary sewer by dividing the

      • actual monthly average concentration of each radionuclide released by the college into the sewer by the concentration of that radionuclide listed.
      • The sum of the fractions for each radionuclide does not exceed the specified limits, and
      • That the total quantity of licensed or other radioactive material that the college releases into the sewer does not exceed 5 curies annually.

Radioactive Waste Disposal – Manifest and Tracking

Transfer of low level radioactive waste by any waste generator, collector or processor who ships or transfers low level radioactive waste directly or indirectly through a waste collector or processor shall;

  • Establish a manifest tracking system,
  • Provide all other applicable documents as required by local, state and federal requirements.
  • If the low level radioactive waste must be documented on the appropriate NRC Uniform low level Radioactive Waste Manifest
  • Each manifest must include a certification by the Waste Generator.

DISPOSING OF RM OR INSTRUMENTS CONTAINING RADIOACTIVE SOURCES

The storage or disposal of radioactive wastes that contain an animal, hazardous biological or hazardous chemical component radioactive waste may require additional measures in accordance with requirements established by regulatory agencies other than the MRCP or USNRC. These wastes may have to be handled by a special radioactive waste disposal site operator and/or waste broker at additional costs. The current requirements for special radioactive waste disposal are maintained in the Radiation Safety Office.

Under no circumstances are radioactive waste, sealed sources, instruments used for counting radioactive samples, radiation generating machines or instruments with sealed sources inside, such as liquid scintillation counters or gas chromatographs to be given over for disposal or recycling.

Radiation Safety must confirm prior to the disposal or recycling of instruments or equipment that it's free from contamination and the sealed sources, if any, have been removed.

Note: Only UMASS Radiation Safety personnel may remove radiation warning signage from instruments or equipment.

Disposal of Dry Radioactive Wastes or Contaminated Equipment

Low Level Radioactive Waste (LLRW) destined for offsite disposal shall conform to packaging requirements established by appropriate regulatory agencies. These requirements may change due to new regulations or administrative procedures. The objective is to ensure that the storage, transportation, and disposal of LLRW are conducted in compliance with current requirements.

The RSO will train all Authorized Users in proper handling of waste, including storage segregation, disposal and minimization. A decay-in-storage program for radioisotopes with relatively short half lives is an example of waste minimization program.

The API is responsible for establishing methods of estimating activities of radioactive wastes (all forms) in accordance with the research methods being employed. Most often, estimates will be made on the basis of mass balance.

Within the laboratory, the API will:

  • ensure that all radioactive waste that is generated is properly separated and put in the appropriate containers in the laboratory.
  • have a system for tracking the isotopes as well as the activity put in the waste, container, which must be labeled with the isotope and the activity of the waste.
  • ensure that the exterior of any waste container does not exceed 5 mrem/hr and ensure that no liquid was it put in a solid container.
  • ensure that secondary containment is used for liquid waste awaiting disposal. The secondary containments must hold at least one-hundred and twenty-five percent (125%) of the volume of the liquid waste container within acceptable contamination levels on the outside surfaces of the container.
  • the RSO (or designee) will maintain a file of current packaging requirements, provide the API’s with information concerning packaging of radioactive wastes, perform additional radiological surveys, (as needed) and periodically remove the waste or oversee the removal of waste from laboratory areas to a central waste storage/pickup area.

All disposal of radioactive waste must be tracked by the API. The API must report the disposal of radioactive waste on the next inventory report submitted to the RSO.

Classification of Dry Radioactive Waste

Dry waste must not contain any free flowing liquids of any kinds. Waste items such as, but not limited to, gloves, pipette tips, paper toweling, centrifugation tubes, aluminum foil and other types of sample holders must be dried or emptied of all liquid radioactive contents. Double plastic bags must be used to line any dry radioactive waste container.

Dry waste containers are classified by two types:

  • Cardboard boxes for compounds or trash containing long half life waste, such as, but not limited to, H-3 (tritium) and C-14. These containers are removed and new containers supplied by Radiation Safety.
  • Commercially available, durable trash containers for short half life waste such as, but not limited to, P-32 and I-125. These containers are kept in the lab until Radiation Safety removes the double plastic bags for disposal.

If discarding a particular item to dry waste is questionable, contact the RSO for clarification. Some items that may fall into this category include small bench-top equipment such as contaminated vortex mixers or stock solution ampules containing a few drops of liquid.

Radioactive Waste Used in Scintillation Counting

Scintillation wastes are classified either as exempt (not regulated as radioactive), waste containing C-14 and/or H-3 only at concentrations <0.05 µCi/g of media, or non-exempt (regulated as radioactive) waste containing any other isotopes (as well as C-14 and H-3 > 0.05 µCi/g) in scintillation media. Scintillation waste may exist as:

  • counting vials
  • beta plates
  • bulk fluid

Each of the above waste forms should be maintained separately.

In addition, some scintillation cocktails contain chemicals that are not considered environmentally benign by regulatory agencies. Scintillants such as toluene, methanol or acetonitrile must be handled as hazardous chemical waste which, along with the radioactive component, makes them classified as “mixed hazardous waste”.

The disposal of mixed hazardous waste is very expensive and researchers are encouraged to exhaust all other options when writing an experimental protocol before they decide to use hazardous chemicals for scintillation counting.

Storing Liquid Radioactive Waste Prior to Disposal

Liquid radioactive wastes that are being temporarily stored at the laboratory bench or work location prior to final disposal must be carefully poured into heavy duty Nalgene (or other) wide-mouth containers. All containers must have a screw on lid which prevents leakage. All liquid waste containers must be placed or stored in a secondary container capable of holding 125% of the volume of the primary container. Temporary liquid containers must not exceed five (5) gallons and should never be filled to capacity. All containers must be properly labeled with the “Caution Radioactive Materials” label. The amount of waste added to the container must be tracked and the information on the tracking document or card must include isotope, the activity added, the date the waste was added to the container and the name of the responsible API (all liquid radioactive waste containers that have completed their useful life and are ready for disposal must be completely dry).

Contact the RSO prior to producing radioactive liquid waste that will be classified as mixed waste.

Care must be used when disinfecting infectious agents that also have radioactive component. Use of a typical 10% bleach solution may cause ion transfer and cause some radioactive compounds, especially radioiodine compounds, to go airborne, which can cause an inhalation hazard.

Radioactive Biological Waste

Radioactive biological wastes that are composed of animal carcasses, urine, feces or other animal tissue may be disposed of as non-radioactive waste if:

  • the radioisotopes in the experiment are either C-14 or H-3, only
  • total radioisotope concentration in the waste container is less than 0.05 µCi/g

Other C-14 or H-3 animal waste, such as bedding material, or animal tissue containing radioisotopes other than C-14 or H-3 must be stored for disposal by a licensed waste broker. These animal wastes are to be double bagged and kept in a freezer or cold storage room prior to disposal. The containers must be labeled with a radiation warning sticker and a label indicating isotope, quantity, API and date.

Radioisotope Characteristics

Appendix B contains information for selected isotopes that is provided for information purposes only. It is furnished to give the reader a better understanding for the radiation hazards for a certain select number of radioisotopes commonly used in research. The reader must not use the following information as the only source to develop individual safe handling procedures for RM within a laboratory or RM use location. You must contact the RSO for technical guidance or for data on the safe use of radionuclides for those radionuclides not appearing on the following list.

PERSONAL EXPOSURE CONTROL

Under no condition shall an Amherst College employee, student or visitor be subjected to a radiation exposure of greater than 10% the dose limit in accordance with ALARA. This stipulation shall include laboratory personnel and the API.

  • No person less than 18 years of age shall be exposed to any level of radiation at Amherst College.
  • Persons under 18 years of age shall not be permitted in a laboratory or other location where radioactive material or equipment is used.
  • Unless permitted by their primary care physician, with appropriate stipulations or modifications pregnant laboratory personnel shall not be exposed to any level of radioactive materials in a laboratory or storage facility, or in areas using radioactive equipment.
  • Pregnant laboratory personnel should notify the API of the pregnancy, and make the RSO aware of the condition, provided their Primary Care Physician approves of their laboratory work and possible radioactive material exposure.
  • The Radiation Safety Voluntary Pregnancy Declaration Form should be used to notify appropriate personnel, including, but not limited to;
    • API
    • RSO
    • Amherst College Human Resources
    • Primary Care Physician
    • The Primary Care Physician, in cooperation with the RSO can decide on exposure levels in rem/month.

If the above referenced person is permitted by the Primary Care Physician to work within a radioactive materials laboratory, the RSO shall identify a limit of exposure that is acceptable to the Primary Care Physician.

Personal Exposure – Previous History

Any authorized user of radioactive material or radioactive sources shall notify the RSO, through the API of any past radiation exposures, including those from past places of education, research or work.

These records must include;

  • Dose received, previous year
  • Internal doses
  • Lifetime cumulative occupational radiation dose
  • Copies of exposures records shall be given to the RSO for work modifications (if appropriate) and for addition to their current records.

If the authorized user does not have records, or access to records from previous exposures, then they must obtain, from the RSO, a copy of the following:

  • Request for Dose History Form (Form 5)
  • This form is used to access dosimetry records from past educations, research or work locations.
  • The records, from the past education or work locations must be sent directly to the RSO from, and shall be signed by the authorized representative of the previous institution or employer.

Personal Exposures – Medical

The following is required for persons who work with radioactivity at Amherst College, who have been subjected to exposure of radiation and radioactive materials for medical purposes including, but not limited to;

  1. X-rays (dental and medical)
  2. Nuclear diagnostic procedures
Monitoring Results – Individual

Amherst College shall, through the RSO, with copies provided to the Amherst College RUC maintain records of doses received by all individuals for whom monitoring was required. These records shall be kept for;

  • Planned Special Exposures
  • Accidents and Emergency Conditions
  • The records must include;
  1. deep dose equivalent to whole body, lens dose equivalent, shallow dose equivalent to the skin or extremities
  2. estimated intake of radionuclides
  3. committed effective dose equivalent assigned to the intake of radionuclides
  4. specific information used to assess the committed effective dose equivalent
  5. total effective dose equivalent when required
  6. total deep dose equivalent and the committed dose to the organ receiving highest total dose.
  • Records shall be made at least annually
  • Use NRC Form 5
  • Records required under this sections should be protected from public disclosure, unless released in a manner acceptable to the person involved, or the regulatory agency requiring same.

Work Permit

Any work in a radioactive materials facility, which is to be performed by Physical Plant Staff or an outside Contractor, at the request of the API must be approved by the API, the Safety Coordinator for that Department, the Chemical Hygiene Officer, EH&S, or the UMASS RSO/designee.To perform this work, a work permit must be obtained.

Work permits can be obtained from the API of the Amherst College Physical Plant Service Center (413) 542-2254

DOSIMETER

Dosimeter

Personal dosimeter (ring and whole body) shall be assigned to a specific authorized person by UMASS/Amherst Radiation Safety Services (RSS) only for monitoring exposure radiation.

  • Badges and rings are provided by the RSO through an outside vendor who must recover and read these dosimeters each month.
  • Dosimeters shall not be removed from the laboratory or place of assignment unless approved by the RSO.
  • It is the responsibility of the authorized person with their own dosimeter to secure same from unauthorized use or loss.
  • Amherst College will be charged an additional cost for dosimeter replacement.

The API must notify the RSO when an authorized person is no longer working with radioactive material at Amherst College. This notification is required for;

  • return and analysis of the monitoring device
  • a bioassay procedure depending on the types of radioactive materials that the authorized person was exposed to.

A record of all exposures and doses will be maintained for 30 years by:

  • Radiation Safety Officer
  • Amherst College Human Resources

Any authorized person at or from Amherst College who, regardless of when they were working in the laboratory using radioactive material can obtain; by written request a report summarizing exposures and/or doses incurred at Amherst College.

  • The report must, within 30 days from receipt of request, be obtained from the current dosimetery-processing vendor.

Exposure and Contamination Control

In order to control exposure and possible contamination, the authorized users, under the direction of the API and the RUC should incorporate the following, in accordance with ALARA;

Time

  1. The time spent in a radiation field is directly proportional to the dose the exposed person receives.
  2. Time is specifically controlled by the authorized user.

Distance

  1. The amount of distance between the user and radioactive material
  2. Radiation intensity decreases by inverse square law
  3. Example: if the survey meter reads 100 mrem/hr at 6” from a vial of P-32, the survey meter will read 25 mrem/hr at 12” from the vial of P-32.

Shielding

  1. Is provided by, depending on activity and type of radioactive material, paper, lead, containment, safety goggles. The appropriate shielding shall be identified by the API, with assistance provided by the RSO or designee.
  2. Time, Distance and Shielding must be the primary exposures to radioactive materials or radiation generating devices. Any source that could cause exposure levels in excess of the limits specified here-in this manual shall be stored in specialized areas that use shielding and/or distance to minimize exposures.

Engineering Controls and Personal Protective Equipment

Engineering Controls and Personal Protective Equipment shall be used to reduce the potential for exposure when using radioactive materials and equipment. Administrative Controls such as regulatory requirements, the ALARA principles and this Radiation Safety manual are the primary controls for limiting exposure.

Engineering Controls are used to further reduce known or potential exposure and should be incorporated into laboratory work involving radioactivity prior to selection and use of Personal Protective Equipment.

  • Engineering Controls include:
  • Fume Hoods
  • Ventilation Equipment
  • Shielding
  • Personal Protective Equipment include:
    1. Gloves
    2. Laboratory Coats
    3. Safety Glasses or Goggles
    4. Respirators

When using radioactive material, the authorized user should utilize the laboratory fume hood or other approved ventilation system as directed by the API and/or RSO. Whenever work of the above type involves the use of volatile, gaseous or toxic materials, the use of a chemical fume hood, glove box or other suitable control system shall be used.

  • Fume hoods used for radioactive materials shall be capable of exhausting at a rate of between 100-125 fpm, with sash raised to a height indicated by the green dot which is located adjacent to the fume hood sash.
  • Any deficiencies identified by the user, involving the fume hood or any other engineering control shall be reported to the API or their designee for immediate repair, contact Physical Plant at 542-2254.

Personal Protective Equipment, including laboratory coats, appropriate gloves (non- latex) and protective eyewear shall be used in all laboratories, in accordance with regulatory requirements and the Amherst College Chemical Hygiene Plan, as required by OSHA.

  • Safety Glasses shall not be used whenever the potential for chemical splash exists.
  • Goggles are required for any work involving chemicals.
  • Face Shields are secondary splash protection.
  • Safety goggles must always be worn under a face shield.

Respirators are provided only when other engineering controls are not available.

  • Respirators must be provided by the Office of Environmental Health and Safety, after;
    1. Medical evaluation
    2. Pulmonary Function Test
    3. Respirator Fit Test, and
    4. Training as required by OSHA

Laboratory Contamination Limits

The UMASS/Amherst Radiation Safety Services (RSS) will perform emergency and routine radiation surveys of all laboratories that use radioactive materials.

Laboratory personnel must perform contamination surveys every day to prevent possible contamination and the spread of the same.

  • Surveys could, depending on materials and energy use, include;
    1. Metering
    2. All wipe test results must be reported in disintegrations/minute (dpm)
    3. Wipe tests which are quantified in a liquid scintillation counter
    4. All survey meter reports must be in counts/minute (cpm)
    5. Any question on the types of test or the use of monitoring equipment must be directed to the API of the UMASS Radiation Safety Service Office.

Personal Exposure (Known or Suspected)

If a persons exposure limits (known or suspected) were exceeded, the API or other authorized persons within the laboratory must;

  1. Contact the Amherst College Campus Police at (413) 542-2111 if the exposure results in illness or injury.
  2. The Amherst College Office of Environmental Health and Safety or the Chemical Hygiene Officer or Biology Safety Coordinator (in the absence of the Environmental Health and Safety Manager) will contact the Radiation Safety Officer or designee from UMASS/Amherst.
    • (413) 545-2682 (normal business hours), or
    • (413) 545-3111 (after hours)

An investigation must be initiated as soon as possible, after the health and safety of the “exposed person” has been properly assessed and treated.

  1. The RSO is responsible for any investigation report and corrective actions involving an incident of radioactivity.
  2. Any person(s) exposed to radioactivity may be removed from the laboratory, or work involving radioactivity until they are cleared by an appropriate physician and pending the results of the investigation.
  3. The results of all investigations shall be reviewed with the exposed person(s) and copies of the report submitted to the RUC and Amherst College Human Resources.
  4. If person(s) were exposed to levels of radiation over regulatory limits, and/or health and safety guidelines, the appropriate regulatory agencies shall be notified as required.
  5. The RUC has set an ALARA limit of 10% of any regulatory level.
  6. The RSO shall submit the incident investigation reports to each applicable regulatory agency, depending on circumstances and criteria including, but not limited to;
    • personal illness or injury
    • exposure levels that exceed regulatory limits
    • loss of radioactive materials
    • loss of controls involving radioactive materials (personnel or equipment contamination)
    • receipt of a non-compliant package of radioactive material.

Spill Reports

Minor Spills are those that do not require prompt notification of the RSO, or those that contain < 10 µCi, which are not confined to a specific area, but remain within the same laboratory.

Major Spills are those that do require immediate notifications of the Amherst College Campus Police and Environmental Health and Safety, who will then notify the RSO through the UMASS Office of Environmental Health and Safety.

Major spills include radioisotopes with activity > 1 mCi, regardless of spill location in the laboratory of storage facility. Major spills include smaller quantities if the spill;

  • is > 1 liter
  • involves the contamination of a person
  • occurs in a non-posted
  • area such as adjacent laboratory or hallway.

LABORATORY AUDITS AND INSPECTIONS

In accordance with local, state and federal regulatory requirements, which include, but are not limited to, the Massachusetts Fire Prevention Regulations, the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection (DEP), the Massachusetts Radiation Control Program (MRCP), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Amherst College and the Office of Radiation Safety Services at the University of Massachusetts/Amherst shall conduct audits and inspections, as required.

Laboratory Safety Inspections shall be conducted at least annually by the Office of Environmental Health and Safety or the Chemical Hygiene Officer. Laboratory Safety Inspections shall include,

  • Housekeeping Practices
  • Emergency Safety Equipment and Procedures
  • Chemical and Biological Hoods
  • Chemical labeling, storage and use
  • Hazardous waste storage and disposal
  • Personal Protective Equipment
  • Electrical hazards

Radiation Safety Inspections, which are completely independent of the above laboratory safety inspections shall be conducted as determined by the RSO, depending on activity and MRCP/NRC requirements. The radiation safety inspection shall include;

  • Surveys
  • Site and Radioactive Materials Security
  • Decontamination Practices
  • Recordkeeping requirements
  • ALARA Protocols

Survey Records

Wipe Tests are performed weekly or monthly, as determined by RSO when laboratories use unsealed radioactive materials.

Authorized persons under the direction of the API must perform daily wipe tests when using Tritium (H-3).

  • after completion of each experiment using this RM, or
  • prior to leaving the laboratory for the day

The wipe test results must be documented, and shall be made available to the RSO, RUC and any requesting inspector from a state or federal regulatory agency responsible for radioactive materials.

  • The RSO shall notify (in writing) the API when contamination levels exceed administrative limits.
  • The API must respond in writing, upon receipt of contamination notice, and shall identify corrective actions taken and steps to prevent re-occurrence.

Additional wipe tests may be required by the RSO, as needed to ensure compliance with administrative, RUC and regulatory limits.

Meter Surveys are performed as required by the RSO.
Every laboratory using radioactive material (except for Tritium (H-3) shall have a calibrated portable survey instrument to conduct the appropriate external radiation surveys.

  1. Survey results must be maintained by the API, with documentation and copies of reports available for review by the RSO and any applicable regulatory inspector or 3rd party auditor.
  2. The RSO shall review documentation and shall recommend and follow-up on corrective actions.

EMERGENCY RESPONSE – RADIATION LABORATORY

Amherst College shall place the health, safety and well-being of the laboratory personnel (faculty, staff and students) above all else. In the event of a chemical spill or leak, fire and/or personal illness or injury, the following actions shall be taken;

  • Laboratory occupants should move to a safe location and notify all others in the area.
  • If possible close the door to the room or area of incident.
  • Spills involving contamination of clothing, should go to a safe laboratory and activate emergency shower or eyewash.
  • Assisting persons should use appropriate Personal Protective Equipment.
  • Contact the Amherst College Campus Police at (413) 542-2111.
    • Provide
      1. Location
      2. Number of person ill or injured
      3. Chemical involved and isotope

Fires

  • Notify all persons in close proximity.
  • Close all doors to the laboratory or room to limit fire and smoke spread
  • Activate the fire alarm (located near the stairs or at the building exits).
  • Contact the Campus Police (413) 542-2111.
  • Go to your assigned area 50’ away from the building
  • Notify the Campus Police or Fire Department Officer if you know the location and cause of the fire or missing person(s).

When the incident has become stable, and all ill or injured personnel have been properly assessed, treated or transported, the Office of Environmental Health and Safety, through the Amherst College Campus Police will notify the RSO for;

  • Site Assessment and Monitoring
  • Clean up activities
  • Incidents Investigation and Reporting
  • Clearance to return to work or reoccupy building or facility.

THEFT OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALimage

Any radioactive material or equipment that has been removed or lost shall first be reported to the Amherst College Campus Police at (413) 542-2111.

  • The Amherst College Campus Police shall notify the Office of Environmental Health and Safety and the Radiation Safety Officer at the University of Massachusetts/Amherst. The RSO shall then;
    1. Conduct appropriate surveys, and notify all applicable state and federal agencies, as required.
    2. Telephone Reports to NRC (301) 816-5100
    3. Immediately after the discovery of any lost, stolen or missing licensed material in an aggregate quantity ≥ 1,000 times the quantity specified in Appendix C to part 20 under such circumstances that it appears to the license that an exposure could result to persons in unrestricted areas, or within 30 days after the occurrence of any lost, stolen or missing material in quantities > 10 times the quantity specified in Appendix C.

Written Reports

  • Amherst College through the RSO must file a written report within 30 days, after making telephone report. The report must include;
    1. Description of licensed material
    2. Quantity of material
    3. Chemical and physical form
    4. Circumstances about loss or theft
    5. Actions that have been taken to recover material.

Appendix A

Regulatory and Administrative Radiation Exposure Limits

Table 1. Surface Contamination Levels

Acceptable Wipe Test Contamination Levels – dpm/100cm2

Radionuclide

Fixed
(Average)

Fixed
(Maximum)

Removable

Action Level**
(removable)

H-3, C-14, S-35, P-32, Ca-45, Cr-51, Sr-90, Cs-137, I-125, I-129, I-131, Ni-63

1,000

3,000

200

200

Beta-gamma emitters (with decay modes other than alpha or fission), except as noted above

5,000

15,000

1,000

200

Acceptable Meter Contamination Levels

Radionuclide

Fixed
(Average)

Fixed
(Maximum)

Removable

Action Level**
(removable)

Beta- gamma emitters

3 times bkg*

3 times bkg*

3 times bkg*

3 times bkg*

*For hand-held survey instruments that are not calibrated to register dose rate (mrem/hr), the person performing the survey may use a value of three (3) times over background as the action level at which removable contamination must be remediated.

**For the purpose of ensuring that removable contamination will be maintained below 1000dpm/100cm2, an action (decontamination) level of 200dpm/100cm2 will be maintained for all isotopes in posted but otherwise unrestricted laboratories. For posted areas with restricted access (key lock security) or for designated equipment, administrative limits are ten times the value given

Table 2. Because additional restrictions or limitations may apply to certain areas, contact the RSO for up-to-date requirements concerning action levels.

Table 2. Personnel Exposure Limits

Exposed Area

Annual Dose Limit

Dose Equivalent

Whole Body

5 rem

total effective dose equivalent (TEDE)1

Lens of Eye 2

15 rem

eye dose equivalent (EDE)

Extremities

50 rem

shallow dose equivalent (SDE)

Skin2

50 rem

shallow dose equivalent (SDE)

*Note: for gamma radiation, 1 rem = 0.01 sievert (Sv)

  1. The total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) is the sum of the deep dose equivalent (DDE) from external radiation added to the committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE) from the internal uptake or radioisotopes. This dose limit is based on a stochastic limit for a risk based occurrence, such as cancer.
  2. These are individual dose limits based on non-stochastic effects, such as the formation of cataracts of skin burns.

Appendix B

Definitions, Physical Data, Technical Information and References

Table 1. Typical Radiation Safety Training Topics

 

Radiation Fundamentals

Types of radiation and their characteristics
Alpha, beta, gamma, x-ray
Radiation interactions with matter
exposure
dose
Radioactive decay process
half life
Sources of radioactivity
natural background sources
man-made sources
radioactive materials
radiation generating machines
Specific types used at UMASS Amherst
unsealed (wet lab) sources
sealed sources
gamma irradiator
x-ray machines

Biological Effects of Radiation

Dose equivalent
Dose-effect relationships
Dose manifestations in the body
stochastic
carcinogenesis
genetic effects
non-stochastic
acute effects
Eye
Skin
latent effects
fetal effects

Protocols and Operating Policies

New RM and API authorization process
Acquisition of RM
wet lab inventory
sealed sources
x-ray generating equipment
RM security program
Radioactive Waste
consolidation
sink disposal
removing waste from labs
Emergency procedures
spill response
personal contamination response
injury involving radioactive material

 

Control of Exposure to Radiation and Contamination

Safe handling various types and form of RM
solid
powders
metals
liquid
frozen
volatile
gases
biological
special chemicals
sealed sources
External and internal dosimetry
minimizing exposure
Controlling exposure
time
distance
shielding
adjusting techniques
Use of personal protective equipment
minimum requirement:
lab coat, safety glasses, gloves
radiosynthesis laboratories
other special requirements
Contamination control
signs, labels, and posting
routine monitoring
adjusting techniques

Radiation Measurement

Instrumentation
hand held survey meters
liquid scintillation counters
computer based analyzers
Detection of contamination
Contamination monitoring
Bioassay
thyroid scan
urine analysis
other analysis

Radiation Protection Program

Purpose
Individual responsibilities
Current good radiation safety practices
ALARA policy
personal responsibilities
concepts for reducing dose
pertinent regulations and dose limits
reporting requirements

Table 2. Physical Characteristics for Commonly Used Radionuclides at UMASS Amherst

Nuclide

Half-life

Decay Mode

Emax (%abundance)

Approx.Range for Material1

Material2

H-3

12.3 y

beta only

19 keV (100)

1.0 cm

air

C-14

5730 y

beta only

156 keV (100)

20 cm

air

P-32

14.3 d

beta only

1710 keV (100)

0.8 cm
6.2 cm

plastic
air

P-33

25.4 d

beta only

250 keV (100)

<0.1 cm
47 cm

plastic
air

S-35

87.4 d

beta only

167 keV (100)

40 cm

air

Ca-45

163 d

beta only

257 keV (100)

48 cm

air

Cr-51

27.7 d

e- capture gamma

~5 keV (89.2)
0.320 MeV (9.8)

-
0.17 cm

-
HVL, Pb

Fe-55

2.737 y

e- capture

~6 keV (16.2)

-

-

Fe-59

44.5 d

beta
beta

gamma
gamma

573.6 keV (45.3)
465.9 kev (53.1)

1.099 MeV (56.5)
1.291 MeV (43.2)

-
52 cm
0.6 cm
-
1.5 cm

-
air
plastic
-
HVL, Pb

Co-60

5.27 y

beta

gamma

318.2 keV (99.9)
1549 keV (0.23)
1.173 MeV (100)
1.332 MeV (100)

50 cm
6.3 m
-
1.7 cm

air
air
-
HVL, Pb

Rb-86

18.7 d

beta

gamma

1770 keV (91.2)

1.08 MeV (8.8)

0.9 cm
6.5 m
0.9 cm

plastic
air
HVL, Pb

I-125

60.1 d

gamma
k x-ray
k x-ray

35 keV (6.5)
27 keV (113)
31 keV (22.4)

0.3 mm
-
-

HVL, Pb
-
-

Cs-137

30.0 y

beta
gamma

513.6keV
0.6617 MeV (85.1)

62 cm
0.65 cm

air
HVL, Pb

  1. For each decay mode, data is given for the most energetic emission, not the most likely emission.
  2. HVL is the thickness of the indicated material required to reduce the initial photon intensity by half.

Table 3. Instruments Types for Detecting Some Common Isotopes

Isotopes

 

H-3

C-14

P-32

P-33

S-35

I-125

Instruments

 

 

 

 

 

 

GM

-

G

E

G

E

P

NaI

-

P

G

P

P

E

LSC w/wipe

G

VG

E

VG

E

P

COBRA

-

-

-

-

-

E

P=POOR

G=GOOD

VG=VERY GOOD

E=EXCELLENT

“-“=NO DETECTION

 

Radiation Safety Clip

Radiation Safety Clip

GM on a Survey Meter
NaI on a Survey Meter

 

LSC means “liquid scintillation counter” where either a liquid or dry sample is put into a vial containing a counting fluid and capped.

COBRA means a gamma counter where a dry sample is put into a glass or plastic tube and left uncapped.

Technical Information For Some Commonly Used Radionuclides

In the information that follows, DAC refers to occupational derived air concentration. The DAC limit is the concentration of radionuclides in air that if breathed for 2000 hours will result in one ALI. The term “ALI” refers to the “annual limits intake” or the activity limit that if taken internally equals 5,000 millirems. The dosimetric and biological information currently used for regulatory purposes is based on data from ICRP 30.

H-3

Occupational Limits: DAC 2.5 x 10-5 μCi/mL
ALI: 80,000 μCi, inhalation
Biological Half-Life: 10 days via urine
Radiological Half–Life = 12.3 years

Dosimetric Considerations:

Millicurie quantities of tritium do not present an external exposure hazard because the low energy betas emitted cannot penetrate the outer layer of the skin. The potential sources of internal occupational exposure from tritium are direct dermal contact, skin, puncture, inhalation or tritiated water vapor, or inadvertent ingestion of tritiated organic compounds. The critical organ for tritium uptake is the whole body water. Three to four hours after intake, tritiated water is uniformly distributed in all body fluids, including urine.

Tritium elimination rates may be accelerated by increasing water intake. Many tritium compounds will penetrate gloves and skin; therefore these compounds should be handled while wearing two pairs of gloves and by changing outer layer at least every 20 minutes. Tritiated DNA precursors are considered more toxic then tritiated water, however they are generally less volatile and do not normally present a significantly greater hazard.

C-14

Occupational Limits: DAC: 1.0 x 10-6 μCi/mL, compounds
ALI: 2,000 μLCi, inhalation of compounds
Biological Half Life: 10 days for most compounds, ranging from minutes to up to 42 days. Excretion occurs as 14 - CO2 or as metabolites via urine.
Radiological Half-Life = 5,730 years

Dosimetric Concentrations:

C-14 is a pure beta emitter and, on direct contact, can cause an external dose rate of 0.94 rad/h per μCi/cm2 to the skin (at a density thickness of 7 mg/cm2 or at 70 μm depth) however, the range of C-14 beta particles in air is about 20 cm. Except for direct contact, the potential for external exposure from unshielded C-14 sources is small. The range of C-14 beta particles in unit-density material is less than 1 mm. most plastic or glass containers will minimize or totally eliminate the risk of beta exposures. As a result, C-14 is primarily a potential source of external exposure for contaminated skin, or internal exposure if accidentally inhaled or taken in via a puncture wound. Millicurie quantities of C-14 do not present a significant exposure hazard because the low energy betas emitted barely penetrate the outer skin layer. The critical organs for many C-14-labeled carbonates are the bone, and fat for some C-14-labeled compounds.

Some C-14-labeled compounds may penetrate gloves and skin. Handle these compounds while wearing two pairs of gloves and change the outer gloves frequently.

P-32

Occupational Limits: DAC: 2.0 x 10-7 μCi/ml, phosphate compounds
ALI: 400 μCi, inhalation
Biological Half-Life: about 2 days via urine from intracellular fluids and 19 days for soft tissues.
Radiological Half-Life = 14.3 days

Dosimetric Considerations:

P-32 is a pure beta emitter. However, because of the energetic beta emission (0.695 MeV average and 1.71 MeV max), it can lead to significant skin exposures. The eyes, however, may be the limiting organ unless adequate eye or face protection is provided. In addition, bremsstrahlung radiation can be produced by the interaction of beta particles with containers or shields made of high-Z materials, (i.e., Pb). On direct contact, P-32 can yield elevated skin dose rates, i.e., 6.2 rad/h per μCi/cm2 (at a density thickness of 7 mg/cm2 or at 70 μm depth).

The range of P-32 beta particles in air is on the order of 6 meters. Skin exposures from beta particles passing through a container wall could be substantial if the wall thickness is less than 1 cm. the range of P-32 beta particles in unit density material is 0.8 cm. Accordingly, a one-cm thick plastic or glass container will nearly eliminate all beta exposures, with lead on the outside of the Lucite to decrease bremsstrahlung emissions, if needed. For containers with walls less than 1 cm, or for portions of the container with minimal shielding (e.g., an injection septum), the beta dose rate could be considerably higher. Wear extremity ring and whole body dosimeters while handling mCi quantities. Use shielding to minimize exposure while handling P-32 and do not work over open containers. Use tools to handle unshielded sources and potentially contaminated vessels. Never handle mCi quantities unshielded.

Following an intake, P-32 is typically retained in blood plasma, intracellular fluids, soft tissues, and mineral bone for transportable compounds. The critical organ is the bone for transportable compounds of P-32, with the lung and lower large intestine being the critical organs for inhalation and ingestion of non-transportable P-32 compounds, respectively. Thirty percent of P-32 is rapidly eliminated from the body, 40% has a half-life of 19 days and 30% is permanently retained in mineral bone, where it decays.

P-33

Occupational Limits: DAC: 1.0 x 10-6 μCi/mL, phosphate compounds.
ALI: 3,000 μCi, inhalation.
Biological Half-Life: see P-32
Radiological Half-Life = 25.4 days

Dosimetric Considerations:

P-33 is a pure beta emitter. However, it is less energetic than P-32 with a beta emission of 0.25 MeV (max) and an average of 76.6 keV. The lens of the eyes is the limiting organ unless adequate eye or face protection is provided. Because of the low energy, bremsstrahlung radiation is not significant when using containers or shields made of high-Z materials. On direct contact, P-33 can also yield elevated skin dose rates, about 2.2 rad/h per μCi/cm2 (at a density thickness of 7mg/cm2 or at 70 μm depth). The range of P-33 beta particles in air is about 0.5 meter.

See P-32 for biological dosimetric considerations.

I-125

Occupational Limits: DAC: 3 x 10-8 μCi/mL
ALI: 60 μCi, inhalation
Biological Half-Life: 69 days
Radiological Half-Life: 60.1 days

Dosimetric Considerations:

I-125 is a weak gamma and x-ray emitter (less than 35 keV). The radiation fields in the vicinity of various quantities of I-125 will vary, but is estimated to be about 0.28 mR/hr at 100 cm per mCi. The half-value layer for I-125 is 0.3 mm for PB based on 35 keV photon emissions. However, in keeping with ALARA practices, millicurie quantities of I-125 will be kept in Pb containers or stored behind Pb shields (or foils) or kept in shielded storage cabinets, as practicable.

I-125 has an extremely restrictive intake limit because it accumulates in the thyroid gland (about 30% of intake). Iodine can, in addition to inhalation, be readily absorbed through intact skin. Protective clothing (at a minimum, lab coats, safety goggles and double gloves) must be worn when handling radioiodines. Since radioiodines are volatile, experiments using more than 0.5 mCi I-125 will be performed in vented hoods, glove boxes, or enclosures. Chlorine bleach must not be used, in any concentration, as a disinfectant. Depending upon chemical forms, the RSO may establish alternate limits for non-volatile compounds.

Individuals handling 0.5 mCi or more of bound I-125 or 0.1 mCi or more of free I-125 (single use), shall undergo routine thyroid scans and/or urine analyses. A bioassay program has been established. If bioassay results exceed specified levels, or an accident is suspected, additional bioassays and a follow-up investigation will be performed.

S-35

Occupational Limits: DAC: 7.0 x 10-6 μCi/mL, sulfides and sulfate compounds.
ALI: 20,000 μCi, inhalation
Biological Half-Life: 90 days with elimination rates dependent upon the chemical form, ranging from less than a day to about 80 days.
Radiological Half-Life – 87.4 days

Dosimetric Considerations:
S-35 is a pure beta emitted with a beta emission of 167 keV (max). the lens of the eye is the limiting organ unless adequate eye or face protection is provided. Because of the low energy, bremsstrahlung radiation is not significant when using containers or shields made of high-Z materials. On direct contact, S-35 can still yield elevated skin dose rates, about 1.0 rad/h per μCi/cm2 (at a density thickness of 7 mg/cm2 or at 70 μm depth). The range of S-35 beta particles in air is about 0.4 meter.

When using S-35, an absolute requirement prior to beginning an experiment is knowing the characteristics of the labeled compound. For example, 35S-methionine has volatile characteristics, even in the original vendor supplied container. Therefore, any experiment using S-35 methionine in excess of 2 mCi (including, but not limited to, pipetting from the original vendor supplied container to make master dilutions) must be preformed in a fume hood. Extra care and engineered controls must be used to prevent inhalation of volatile components and to prevent aerosolization during the experiment. Some example of controls required include, but are not limited to, using screw-top Epindoff tubes, standing away from opening the centrifuge top, using charcoal paper over a sample in an incubator and using a disinfectant other than chlorine bleach.

Depending upon chemical forms, the RSO may establish alternate limits for non-volatile compounds.

 

 

RADIONUCLIDE SAFETY DATA SHEET

NUCLIDE: H-3 FORMS: SOLUBLE, EXCEPT GAS

 

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS:

HALF-LIFE: 12.35 years TYPE DECAY: beta-
Maximum energy 0.0186MeV

Hazard category: C-level (Low hazard): > 1 to 25 mCi per item to 200 mCi possession
B-level (Moderate hazard): > 25 mCi per item to 10 Ci possession
A-level (High hazard): > 10 Ci

EXTERNAL RADIATION HAZARDS AND SHIELDING:

Because of its low energy, the vial holding the isotope will provide sufficient shielding to stop betas.
If skin is contaminated with tritium, betas will not be able to pass the dead layer of skin. However, H-3 will cause a radiation dose if absorbed into body through cuts in skin or by ingestion.

HAZARDS IF INTERNALLY DEPOSITED:

The Annual Limit of Intake (ALI) based upon a whole body dose of 5 rem per year or upon the maximum
Recommended (N.R.C.P.) dose to the hematopoetic or spermtogonial stem cell nuclei (from DNA precursors) is as follows:
Whole body 80 mCi (inorganic, soluble) based upon NRC ALI
Stem Cell Nuclei 3.5 mCi (CdR)
Stem Cell Nuclei 7 mCi (other DNA and RNA precursors)

DOSIMETRY AND BIOASSAY REQUIREMENTS:

Film badges and dosimeter rings are not appropriate for monitoring H3 exposure.

Routine urine assays are required after handling 100 millicuries or more of H3. Spot checks may be required after spills or contamination incidents.

SPECIAL PROBLEMS AND PRECAUTIONS:

  1. Always wear protective gloves to keep contamination from skin. Change gloves often.
  2. Since the H3 beta particles have very low energies, the use of G.M. or other survey meters is precluded. Smear surveys are required.
  3. All waste in an H3 work area is considered to be contamination. Keep work areas free of unnecessary items. Segregate wastes to those with H3 and C14 only.
  4. Limit of soluble waste to sewer is 1000 microcuries/day per lab; and limit of H3 labeled DNA precursors to sewer as waste is 100 microcuries per day. If the DNA precursors are denatured prior to disposal, the sewer limits would be the same as for soluble forms.

Information Provided by Stanford University
SAFETY DATA SHEETS

 

Appendix information provided with permisssion of Stanford University

RADIONUCLIDE DATA SHEET

NUCLIDE: C-14 FORMS: SOLUBLE, EXCEPT GASEOUS

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS:

HALF-LIFE: 5730 years TYPE DECAY: beta-
Maximum energy: 0.156 MeV

Hazard category: C-level (Low hazard): > 0.1 to 20 mCi
B-level (Moderate hazard): > 20 mCi to 1.0 Ci
A-level (High hazard): > 1.0 Ci

EXTERNAL RADIATION HAZARDS AND SHIELDING:

The maximum range of these betas is ~1 ft in air and 0.0065 in (0.17 mm) in glass. The external hazard of this isotope is minimal, e.g., the glass vial holding the isotope will provide sufficient shielding to stop the betas. If skin is uniformly contaminated with C14, 1 microcurie/cm2 will deliver a dose of 1,100 mrem/hr to basal cells of the skin. (Porter Consultants to NRC)

HAZARDS IF INTERNALLY DEPOSITED:

The Annual Limit of Intake (ALI) which will result in a whole body exposure of 5 rem or maximum
recommended doses (by the NCRP) to hematopoetic or speratogonial stem cell nuclei is as follows:
Whole body 2 mCi (inorganic, soluble)
Stem Cell Nuclei 10 mCi (DNA precursors)
Stem Cell Nuclei 880 µCi (RNA precursors)

DOSIMETRY AND BIOASSAY REQUIREMENTS:

Film badges and dosimeter rings are not appropriate for monitoring C14 exposure.

Urine assays may be required after spills or contamination incidents,

SPECIAL PROBLEMS AND PRECAUTIONS:

  1. Always wear protective gloves to keep contamination from skin. Change gloves often.
  2. C14 beta particles have very low energies. G.M. survey meters are not very efficient at such energies. Smear surveys required.
  3. All waste in a C14 work area is considered to be contaminated. Keep work area free of unnecessary items. Segregate wastes to those with H3 and C14 only.
  4. Limit of soluble waste to sewer is 100 microcuries/day per lab.

Appendix information provided with permisssion of Stanford University

RADIONUCLIDE SAFETY DATA SHEET

NUCLIDE: P-32 FORMS: ALL SOLUBLE

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS:

HALF-LIFE: 14.82 days TYPE DECAY: beta-
Maximum energy 1.71 MeV

Hazard category: C-level (Low hazard): > 0.01 to 2 millicuries
B-level (Moderate hazard): > 2 to 100 mCi
A-level (High hazard): > 100 millicuries

EXTERNAL RADIATION HAZARDS AND SHIELDING:

The dose rate at 10 cm from an unshielded 1 mCi (dried sample) of P32 (assuming no backscatter or self absorption in the source) is 2.7 rads per hour; the dose at 1 cm is 270 rads per hour. Dose rates vary directly with activity and over short distances inversely with the square of the distance from the source.

Maximum ranges of these betas are 20 feet in air, 1/3 inch in water and tissue and ¼ inch in plastic.

A spill of 1 µCi of P32 on 1 cm2 skin will deliver a dose of 9200 mrads/hr to the basal cells of the epidermis. (Porter Consultants for NRC)

HAZARDS IF INTERNALLY DEPOSITED:

The Annual Limit of Intake (ALI) (based upon NRC) which would deliver 5 rems to the whole body
is 600 µCi.

DOSIMETRY AND BIOASSAY REQUIREMENTS:

Film badges and dosimeter rings are usually required if 5 millicuries are handled at any one time, or
if millicurie levels are handled on a frequent (daily) basis. Urine assays may be required after spills
or contamination incidents.

SPECIAL PROBLEMS AND PRECAUTIONS:

  1. Work behind low Z shielding, preferably transparent materials. Survey frequently. Change gloves often.
  2. Segregate wastes to those with half-lives < 19 days.
  3. Limit of soluble waste to sewer is 10 microcuries/day per lab.
  4. P32 aheres to ferrous materials and to glass, weak HCl (~ 0.1 N) can facilitate removal from glass and from glass and from some impervious surfaces.

Appendix information provided with permisssion of Stanford University

RADIONUCLIDE SAFETY DATA SHEET

NUCLIDE: P-33 FORMS: ALL SOLUBLE

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS:

HALF-LIFE: 25 days TYPE DECAY: beta-
Maximum energy 0.248 MeV

Hazard category: C-level (Low hazard): > 0.1 to 20 millicurie
B-level (Moderate hazard): > 20 mCi to 1 Ci
A-level (High hazard): > 1 Ci

EXTERNAL RADIATION HAZARDS AND SHIELDING:

The maximum range of these betas is ~19 inches in air and 0.009 inches (0.23 mm) in glass. The external hazard of this isotope is minimal, e.g., the glass vial holding the isotope will provide sufficient shielding to stop the betas. If skin is uniformly contaminated with P33, 1 microcurie/cm2 will deliver a dose of 3,200 mrems/hr to basal cells of the skin. (Porter Consultants to NRC based upon 0.257 MeV (max.) beta particles.)

HAZARDS IF INTERNALLY DEPOSITED:

The Annual Limit of Intake (ALI, based on NRC) which would deliver 5 rem to the whole body is 6 mCi.
Note: The hazards from ingestion or internal deposition of P33 in labeled nucleotide bases may be greater than for inorganic phosphates.

DOSIMETRY AND BIOASSAY REQUIREMENTS:

Film badges and dosimeter rings are of marginal value (inappropriate) for monitors P33 exposure.

Urine assays may be required after spills or contamination incidents.

SPECIAL PROBLEMS AND PRECAUTIONS:

  1. Always wear protective gloves to keep contamination from skin. Change gloves often.
  2. P33 beta particles have low energies. G.M. survey meters efficiency for such energies is about 10%. Smear surveys are usually required. (If meter is approved for C14 measurements, it may be used.)
  3. All waste in a P33 work area is considered to be contaminated, unless proved to be clean by appropriate monitoring techniques. Keep work areas free of extraneous items. Segregate wastes to those with half-lives from 19 days to less than 65 days.
  4. Limit of soluble waste to sewer is 100 microcuries/day per lab.


Appendix information provided with permisssion of Stanford University

RADIONUCLIDE SAFETY DATA SHEET

NUCLIDE: S-35 FORMS: SOLUBLE, EXCEPT GASEOUS

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS:

HALF-LIFE: 87.9 days TYPE DECAY: beta‑
Maximum energy 0.167 MeV

Hazard category: C-level (Low hazard): > 0.1 to 20 mCi
B-level (Moderate hazard): > 20 mCi to 1.0 Ci
A-level (High hazard): > 1.0 Ci

EXTERNAL RADIATION HAZARDS AND SHIELDING:

The maximum range of these betas is 43 cm in air, 0.5 mm in plastic and 0.17 mm in glass. The external hazard of this isotope is minimal; the vial holding the isotope will provide sufficient shielding to stop the betas. If skin is uniformly contaminated with S35, 1 microcurie/cm2 will deliver a dose of 1.200 mrad/hr to basal cells of the skin. (Porter Consultants to NRC)

HAZARDS IF INTERNALLY DEPOSITED:

Although the external hazard associated with S35 is small, it is important to avoid ingestion and/or skin contamination. Many S35 compounds are volatile or degrade giving off volatile products. Open vials and work in fume hoods.

The Annual Limit of Intake (ALI, based upon the NRC values) that would result in an effective dose
equivalent of 5 rem/year is 8 mCi. (Note: A lower ALI is used for insoluble, inorganic sulfides and
sulfates.)

DOSIMETRY AND BIOASSAY REQUIREMENTS:

Film badges and dosimeter rings are not appropriate for monitoring S35 exposure.

Urine assays may be required after spills or contamination incidents.

SPECIAL PROBLEMS AND PRECAUTIONS:

  1. Always wear protective gloves to keep contamination from skin. Change gloves often.
  2. S35 beta particles have very low energies. GM survey meters are about 10% efficient at such
    energies. Smear surveys are generally required.
  3. S35 compounds frequently are volatile or produce volatile products; open and handle in a fume
    hood. When incubating samples use activated charcoal.
  4. All waste in an S35 work area should be considered to be contaminated unless proven to be clean by appropriate monitoring techniques. Keep work areas free of unnecessary items. Generally it is very difficult to survey the items because of self-shielding. Segregate wastes to those with half-lives from 65 to less than 90 days.
  5. Limit for soluble waste to sewer is 100 microcuries/day per lab.

Appendix information provided with permisssion of Stanford University

RADIONUCLIDE SAFETY DATA SHEET

NUCLIDE: Cr-51 FORMS: ALL SOLUBLE

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS:

HALF-LIFE: 27.7 days TYPE DECAY: e- capture
Gamma: 0.320 MeV (9%)
X-rays: 0.005 – 0.026 MeV
Auger e-: 0.005 MeV (76%)

Hazard category: C-level (Low hazard): > 1 to 200 millicuries
B-level (Moderate hazard): > 200 mCi to 10 Ci
A-level (High hazard): > 10 Ci

EXTERNAL RADIATION HAZARDS AND SHIELDING:

The exposure rate at 1 cm from 1 mCi is 164 mR/hr. the exposure rate varies directly with activity and inversely with the square of the distance. The tenth value of lead for this radiation energy is 0.7 cm.

HAZARDS IF INTERNALLY DEPOSITED:

The Annual Limit of Intake (ALI) of Cr51 corresponding to a whole-body guideline gamma exposure
Rate of 5 rem/year is 4 mCi.

DOSIMETRY AND BIOASSAY REQUIREMENTS:

Film badges and dosimeter rings usually required if 5 millicuries are handled at any one time or 1 millicurie level is handled on a frequent (daily) basis.

SPECIAL PROBLEMS AND PRECAUTIONS:

  1. When 5 millicuries are used or stored, use lead shielding. Survey frequently. Handle stock solution vials in shields or use tongs or forceps.
  2. Survey frequently with a GM monitor. Change gloves often.
  3. Segregate wastes to those with half-lives from 15 days to less than 60 days.
  4. Dilute aqueous wastes may be disposed to the sewer system in amounts of up to 1 mCi daily per lab.


Appendix information provided with permisssion of Stanford University

RADIONUCLIDE SAFETY DATA SHEET

NUCLIDE: I-125 FORMS: INORGANIC OR FREE IODINE

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS:

HALF-LIFE: 60 days TYPE DECAY: e-
Gamma rays 0.035 MeV (7%)
X-rays 0.027 – 0.031 MeV (140%)

Hazard category: C-level (Low hazard): > 1 to 200 µCi
B-level (Moderate hazard): > 200 µCi to 10 mCi
A-level (High hazard): > 10 mCi

EXTERNAL RADIATION HAZARDS AND SHIELDING:

Exposure rate at 1 cm from 1 mCi is 1.5 R/hr. (Exposure varies directly with activity and inversely with square of distance from materials.)

Amount of lead required to reduce the exposure rate by a factor of 10 (1 TVL) is approximately 0.1 mm. 1/8 inch of glass would reduce the exposure rate by half. Leaded rubber gloves (0.1 mm lead = 1 TVL) are available from Health Physics.

HAZARDS IF INTERNALLY DEPOSITED:

Contamination on the skin of inhalation will result in internal deposition. Iodide solutions are easily
oxidized and the elemental iodine will become airborne. Ingestion of 40 µCi, or inhalation of 60 µCi, will result in the thyroid receiving Annual Limit of Intake (ALI).

Blocking the uptake of radioiodine with the stable nuclide is not permitted. WORK IN PROPER
FUME HOODS
.

DOSIMETRY AND BIOASSAY REQUIREMENTS:

Badge and ring dosimeters are usually required if 5 millicurie are handled at any one time of if millicurie levels are handled frequently (daily basis). Arrange for a thyroid survey within 24-72 hours after the first procedure; thereafter, every three months.

SPECIAL PROBLEMS AND PRECAUTIONS:

  1. GM survey meters have a poor efficiency of detection for I125. Survey by smear tests or use NaI (TI) Scintillation probes.
  2. Segregate wastes to those with half-lives from 19 to less than 65 days. Assume items in work areas are contaminated unless cleared with an NaI scintillation survey meter. Wrap all waste items in plastic bags prior to placing them in waste.
  3. Limit soluble waste to sewer is 100 µCi/month per lab.
  4. Wear double gloves. Change gloves often.
  5. See separate Radiation Safety Data Sheet for non-volatile or non-cleaving compounds.

Appendix information provided with permisssion of Stanford University

RADIONUCLIDE SAFETY DATA SHEET

NUCLIDE: U-NAT FORMS: SOLUBLE

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS:

HALF-LIFE: 4.5 x 109 y TYPE DECAY: alpha, beta-
Betas, principally from daughters Th-234 (0.191 MeV) and
Pa-234m (2.29 MeV)

Hazard category: C-level (Low hazard): > 100 µCi to 20 mCi
B-level (Moderate hazard): > 20 mCi to 1 Ci
A-level (High hazard): > greater than 1 Ci

EXTERNAL RADIATION HAZARDS AND SHIELDING:

Surface beta dose rate is 111 mR/hr
Maximum range of beta radiation, glass 0.25 inches, plastic 0.4 inches (1 cm)

There also is some gamma radiation associated with Uranium, but, if chemical purification has removed the radium, the exposure rate will be quite low.

HAZARDS IF INTERNALLY DEPOSITED:

In general, uranyl nitrate or uranyl acetate are considered to be more chemically toxic as a heavy metal (like lead or bismuth) than as a radiotoxic element and care should be taken to prevent ingestion by following good hygiene: wearing disposable gloves (this will also minimize beta particles) and washing up after use.

Dusty, or vapor or aerosol-producing operations must be contained in fume hoods or glove boxes since deposition in the lungs is more hazardous.

The Stanford ALARA Annual Limit of Intake (amount which will deliver 10% of the legal limit, i.e.
5 rem to the bone surface) is 1 microcurie (inhaled).

DOSIMETRY AND BIOASSAY REQUIREMENTS:

Body and finger dosimeters are not required when handling below C-level amounts.

SPECIAL PROBLEMS AND PRECAUTIONS:

  1. Always wear protective gloves to keep contamination from skin. Change gloves often.
  2. G.M. survey meters are efficient for measuring uranium contamination. Smear surveys required for unrestricted areas, e.g. floors.
  3. Survey waste in a uranium work area to assess contamination.
  4. Limit of soluble waste to sewer to 1 microcurie (1.48 g) per day per lab.


10 CFR Part 20 Appendix C – Quantities of Licensed Material
Requiring Labeling

Appendix information provided with permisssion of Stanford University


Radionuclide

LAS
Quantity
(µCi)

Radionuclide

LAS
Quantity
(µCi)

Radionuclide

LAS
Quantity
(µCi)

Hydrogen-3*

1,000

Nickel-59

100

Krypton-85m

1,000

Beryllium-7

1,000

Nickel-63

100

Krypton-85

1,000

Beryllium-10

1

Nickel-65

1,000

Krypton-87

1,000

Carbon-11

1,000

Nickel-66

10

Krypton-88

1,000

Carbon-14

100

Copper-60

1,000

Rubidium-79

1,000

Fluorine-18

1,000

Copper-61

1,000

Rubidium-81m

1,000

Sodium-22

10

Copper-64

1,000

Rubidium-81

1,000

Sodium-24

100

Copper-67

1,000

Rubidium-82m

1,000

Magnesium-28

100

Zinc-62

100

Rubidium-83

100

Aluminum-26

10

Zinc-63

1,000

Rubidium-84

100

Silicon-31

1,000

Zinc-65

10

Rubidium-86

100

Silicon-32

1

Zinc-69m

100

Rubidium-87

100

Phosphorus-32

10

Zinc-69

1,000

Rubidium-88

1,000

Phosphorus-33

100

Zinc-71m

1,000

Rubidium-89

1,000

Sulfur-35

100

Zinc-72

100

Strontium-80

100

Chlorine-36

10

Gallium-65

1,000

Strontium-81

1,000

Chlorine-38

1,000

Gallium-66

100

Strontium-83

100

Argon-39

1,000

Gallium-67

1,000

Strontium-85m

1,000

Argon-41

1,000

Gallium-68

1,000

Strontium-85

100

Potassium-40

100

Gallium-70

1,000

Strontium-87m

1,000

Potassium-42

1,000

Gallium-72

100

Strontium-89

10

Potassium-43

1,000

Gallium-73

1,000

Strontium-90

0.1

Potassium-44

1,000

Germanium-66

1,000

Strontium-91

100

Potassium-45

1,000

Germanium-67

1,000

Strontium-92

100

Calcium-41

100

Germanium-68

10

Yttrium-86m

1,000

Calcium-45

100

Germanium-69

1,000

Yttrium-86

100

Calcium-47

100

Germanium-71

1,000

Yttrium-87

100

Scandium-43

1,000

Germanium-75

1,000

Yttrium-88

10

Scandium-44m

100

Germanium-77

1,000

Yttrium-90m

1,000

Scandium-44

100

Germanium-78

1,000

Yttrium-90

10

Scandium-46

10

Arsenic-69

1,000

Yttrium-91m

1,000

Scandium-47

100

Arsenic-70

1,000

Yttrium-91

10

Scandium-48

100

Arsenic-71

100

Yttrium-92

100

Scandium-49

1,000

Arsenic-72

100

Yttrium-93

100

Titanium-44

1

Arsenic-73

100

Yttrium-94

1,000

Titanium-45

1,000

Arsenic-74

100

Yttrium-95

1,000

Vanadium-47

1,000

Arsenic-76

100

Zirconium-86

100

Vanadium-48

100

Arsenic-77

100

Zirconium-88

10

Vanadium-49

1,000

Arsenic-78

1,000

Zirconium-89

100

Chromium-48

1,000

Selenium-70

1,000

Zirconium-93

1

Chromium-49

1,000

Selenium-73m

1,000

Zirconium-95

10

Chromium-51

1,000

Selenium-73

100

Zirconium-97

100

Manganese-51

1,000

Selenium-75

100

Niobium-88

1,000

Manganese-52m

1,000

Selenium-79

100

Niobium-89m (66 min)

1,000

Manganese-52

100

Selenium-81m

1,000

Niobium-89 (122 min)

1,000

Manganese-53

1,000

Selenium-81

1,000

Niobium-90

100

Manganese-54

100

Selenium-83

1,000

Niobium-93m

10

Manganese-56

1,000

Bromine-74m

1,000

Niobium-94

1

Iron-52

100

Bromine-74

1,000

Niobium-95m

100

Iron-55

100

Bromine-75

1,000

Niobium-95

100

Iron-59

10

Bromine-76

100

Niobium-96

100

Iron-60

1

Bromine-77

1,000

Niobium-97

1,000

Cobalt-55

100

Bromine-80m

1,000

Niobium-98

1,000

Cobalt-56

10

Bromine-80

1,000

Molybdenum-90

100

Cobalt-57

100

Bromine-82

100

Molybdenum-93m

100

Cobalt-58m

1,000

Bromine-83

1,000

Molybdenum-93

10

Cobalt-58

100

Bromine-84

1,000

Molybdenum-99

100

Cobalt-60m

1,000

Krypton-74

1,000

Molybdenum-101

1,000

Cobalt-60

1

Krypton-76

1,000

Technetium-93m

1,000

Cobalt-61

1,000

Krypton-77

1,000

Technetium-93

1,000

Cobalt-62m

1,000

Krypton-79

1,000

Technetium-94m

1,000

Nickel-56

100

Krypton-81

1,000

Technetium-94

1,000

Nickel-57

100

Krypton-83m

1,000

Technetium-96m

1,000

 

Appendix information provided with permisssion of Stanford University

 

 

 

 

Radionuclide

LAS
Quantity
(µCi)

Radionuclide

LAS
Quantity
(µCi)

Radionuclide

LAS
Quantity
(µCi)

Technetium-96

100

Tin-119m

100

Xenon-127

1,000

Technetium-97m

100

Tin-121m

100

Xenon-129m

1,000

Technetium-97

1,000

Tin-121

1,000

Xenon-131m

1,000

Technetium-98

10

Tin-123m

1,000

Xenon-133m

1,000

Technetium-99m

1,000

Tin-123

10

Xenon-133

1,000

Technetium-99

100

Tin-125

10

Xenon-135m

1,000

Technetium-101

1,000

Tin-126

10

Xenon-135

1,000

Technetium-104

1,000

Tin-127

1,000

Xenon-138

1,000

Ruthenium-94

1,000

Tin-128

1,000

Cesium-125

1,000

Ruthenium-97

1,000

Antimony-115

1,000

Cesium-127

1,000

Ruthenium-103

100

Antimony-116m

1,000

Cesium-129

1,000

Ruthenium-105

1,000

Antimony-116

1,000

Cesium-130

1,000

Ruthenium-106

1

Antimony-117

1,000

Cesium-131

1,000

Rhodium-99m

1,000

Antimony-118m

1,000

Cesium-132

100

Rhodium-99

100

Antimony-119

1,000

Cesium-134m

1,000

Rhodium-100

100

Antimony-120

1,000

Cesium-134

10

Rhodium-101m

1,000

(16 min)

 

Cesium-135m

1,000

Rhodium-101

10

Antimony-120 (5.76 d)

100

Cesium-135

100

Rhodium-102m

10

Antimony-122

100

Cesium-136

10

Rhodium-102

10

Antimony-124m

1,000

Cesium-137

10

Rhodium-103m

1,000

Antimony-124

10

Cesium-138

1,000

Rhodium-105

100

Antimony-125

100

Barium-126

1,000

Rhodium-106m

1,000

Antimony-126m

1,000

Barium-128

100

Rhodium-107

1,000

Antimony-126

100

Barium-131m

1,000

Palladium-100

100

Antimony-127

100

Barium-131

100

Palladium-101

1,000

Antimony-128

1,000

Barium-133m

100

Palladium-103

100

(10.4 min)

 

Barium-133

100

Palladium-107

10

Antimony-128 (9.01 h)

100

Barium-135m

1,000

Palladium-109

100

Antimony-129

100

Barium-139

100

Silver-102

1,000

Antimony-130

1,000

Barium-140

1,000

Silver-103

1,000

Antimony-131

1,000

Barium-141

1,000

Silver-104m

1,000

Tellurium-116

1,000

Barium-142

1,000

Silver-104

1,000

Tellurium-121m

10

Lanthanum-131

1,000

Silver-105

100

Tellurium-123m

10

Lanthanum-132

100

Silver-106m

100

Tellurium-123

100

Lanthanum-135

1,000

Silver-106

1,000

Tellurium-125m

10

Lanthanum-137

10

Silver-108m

1

Tellurium-127m

10

Lanthanum-138

100

Silver-110m

10

Tellurium-127

1,000

Lanthanum-140

100

Silver-111

100

Tellurium-129m

10

Lanthanum-141

100

Silver-112

100

Tellurium-129

1,000

Lanthanum-142

1,000

Silver-115

1,000

Tellurium-131m

10

Lanthanum-143

1,000

Cadmium-104

1,000

Tellurium-131

100

Cerium-134

100

Cadmium-107

1,000

Tellurium-132

10

Cerium-135

100

Cadmium-109

1

Tellurium-133m

100

Cerium-137m

100

Cadmium-113m

0.1

Tellurium-133

1,000

Cerium-137

1,000

Cadmium-113

100

Tellurium-134

1,000

Cerium-139

100

Cadmium-115m

10

Iodine-120m

1,000

Cerium-141

100

Cadmium-115

100

Iodine-120

100

Cerium-143

100

Cadmium-117m

1,000

Iodine-121

1,000

Cerium-144

1

Cadmium-117

1,000

Iodine-123

100

Praseodymium-136

1,000

Indium-109

1,000

Iodine-124

10

Praseodymium-137

1,000

Indium-110 (69.1 min)

1,000

Iodine-125*

1

Praseodymium-138m

1,000

Indium-110 (4.9 h)

1,000

Iodine-126

1

Praseodymium-139

1,000

Indium-111

100

Iodine-128

1,000

Praseodymium-142m

1,000

Indium-112

1,000

Iodine-129

1

Praseodymium-142

100

Indium-113m

1,000

Iodine-130

10

Praseodymium-143

100

Indium-114m

10

Iodine-131*

1

Praseodymium-144

1,000

Indium-115m

1,000

Iodine-132m

100

Praseodymium-145

100

Indium-115

100

Iodine-132

100

Praseodymium-147

1,000

Indium-116m

1,000

Iodine-133

10

Neodymium-136

1,000

Indium-117m

1,000

Iodine-134

1,000

Neodymium-138

100

Indium-117

1,000

Iodine-135

100

Neodymium-139m

1,000

Indium-119m

1,000

Xenon-120

1,000

Neodymium-139

1,000

Tin-110

100

Xenon-121

1,000

Neodymium-141

1,000

Tin-111

1,000

Xenon-122

1,000

Neodymium-147

100

Tin-113

100

Xenon-123

1,000

Neodymium-149

1,000

Tin-117m

100

Xenon-125

1,000

Neodymium-151

1,000


CONVERSION TABLES

Appendix information provided with permisssion of Stanford University

RADIATION

 

GUIDE TO SI UNITS

DOSE

AMOUNT

TEMPERATURE

PRESSURE (Pascal)

rem

sievert

curie

becquerel

Celsius

Fahrenheit

1 Pa = 1.45 x 104 psi

 

 

0.1 mrem

1 µSv

1 pCi

37 mBq

3000ºC

3532ºF

7000 pa ­≈ 1 psi

1 mrem

10 µSv

37 pCi

1 Bq

2500ºC

4532ºF

1M Pa = 145 psi

10 mrem

100 µSv

1 nCi

37 Bp

2000ºC

3632ºF

SPEED

100 mrem

1 mSv (0.1 mSv)

27 nCi

1 kBq

1500ºC

2732ºF

1 m/s ≈ 2 mph

500 mrem

5 mSv

1 µCi

37 kBq

1000ºC

1832ºF

VOLUME

1 rem

10 mSv

27 µCi

1 MBq

800ºC

1472ºF

1m3 = 103 l

5 rem

50 mSv

1 mCi

37 MBq

600ºC

1112ºF

1 cc (cm3) = 1 ml

10 rem

100 mSv

27 mCi

1 GBq

400ºC

752ºF

1 cc ≈ 1 gram water

25 rem

250 mSv

1 Ci

37 GBq

200ºC

392ºF

3785 cc/gal 7.48 gal/ft3

50 rem

500 mSv

27 Ci

1 TBq

100ºC

212ºF

AREA

100 rem

1 Sv

1 kCi

37 TBq

50ºC

122ºF

1 km2 = 106 m2

 

 

27 kCi

1 PBq

0ºC

32ºF

1 m2 ≈ 11 ft2

 

 

1 MCi

37 PBq

-17.8ºC

0ºF

ABSORBED ENERGY

 

100 rad = 1 Gy (gray)

 

SI UNITS PREFIXES

 

 

 

E exa 10 18

M mega 10 6

µ micro 10 -6

 

P peta 10 15

k kilo 10 3

n nano 10 -9

Prepared By U.S. NRC AEOD/IRB 1/90

T tera 10 12

c centi 10 -2

p pico 10 -12

 

G giga 10 9

m mili 10 -3

 

 

Appendix information provided with permisssion of Stanford University

Forms