2008 - 2009 National Endowment for the Humanities Fellowship

2006 Guggenheim Fellowship

2004 PRIZES for Khrushchev: The Man and His Era

Pulitzer Prize for biography

National Book Critics Circle award for biography.

Wayne S. Vucinich Prize of the American Association for the Advancement of Slavic Studies for the most important contribution to Russian, Eurasian and East European Studies in any discipline of the humanities or social sciences.

Robert H. Ferrell Book Prize of the Society for Historians of American Foreign Relations for distinguished scholarship in the history of American foreign relations

2004 "Alumnus of the Year" of the Harriman Institute, Columbia University

2000 Fellowship, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars

1992-1993 National Humanities Endowment Fellowship

1988 (spring) Fulbright-Hays Faculty Research Fellow; ACLS/Soviet Academy of Sciences Exchange Program

1987 (fall) Senior Fellow, Harriman Institute, Columbia University

1986-1987 Karl Loewenstein Fellowship, Amherst College

1983-1984 National Council for Soviet and East European Research Contract

1982-1983 Rockefeller Humanities Fellowship; Kennan Institute for Advanced Russian Studies Visiting Grant

1970-1971 Council on Foreign Relations International Affairs Fellowship

1965-1966 Fulbright-Hays Fellowship; US-Soviet Academic Exchange

1964-1965 President's Fellow, Columbia University

1963-1964 Foreign Area Fellowship (also 1964-1965, 1966-1967); Honors Fellowship of Russian Institute (for highest rank in class)

1962-1963 Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship