Two Basic Vocab!!!

Dacôs: Yes

Nouô: Okay

Mêssis: Yes! (Comme "Si" en français)

Phés: No

Phévras: Not really.


This Sub is where you and I, both, learn to speak and use Lesteranian. Even though I've put much effort in setting up the grammar system and some vocabulary, it's still important to explore ways to make use of this exciting language.

In this Sub, we'll focus on some important usages, especially how this fascinating grammar system can make speaking much more precise and simple.

Some Vocab

Lingite n.f. language
Mane n.f. kind
Tebidatic: adj. particular
Seurème: n.f. system
Codifir: vt. encode
Décodifir: vt. decode
Infotate: n.f. information
Devenir: vt. become
Doshin: n.m. object
Étude: n.m. study
Grammateur: flex. grammarian
Ancienic: adj. ancient
Soyuw: n.m. term
Avoir: vt. have
Dinyude: n.m. Definition
Peuve: n.f. ability
Utilir: vt. use
Yuyan: n.m. speech
Originir: vi. originate
Temps: n.m. time (era...)
Shikyanic: adj. prehistoric

The First Official Sentence of Lesteranian (Not yet officially Approved by HRH the Duke)

Lingitiaz, sotak maniazenn tebidaticazenn seurèmiasazum infotatiasien codifirpour et décodifirpour. Dastâf, lingitiaz et lingitiage, devenésontak doshinozenn étudiosozum (“logos”) grammateurougeparr ancienicougeparr, soyuwos, avosésotok bekutogien dinyudiogium. Peuvias utiliriasum youyanosien, originougiotok tempsozøtt shikyanicosøtt jâyinicosøtt, jatiniagiâss lingitiasagium utilontakicagiâss commenciasâtt écritiasasum.


A. Special pronoun "Dast"

Dast is a special pronoun; it has NO gender or number or definiteness at all, not even "impersonal" or so. Therefore, it does NOT have a GDN suffix.

Dast is used to replace A WHOLE SENTENCE. To nominate this sentence, one can put a "làs" at the end of the sentence:

Dast tosen ayatok (làs). That I love you.

When Dast is referring to a sentence, it has NO OTHER MEANING; it means nothing but the sentence itself. It doesn't have a demonstrative meaning, for example, as Çous.

Determiner of Amounts

In Lesteranian, the Logic of Amount determiner is:

(1) The Determiner is ITSELF a NOUN, while the modified noun is declined in the GENITIVE CASE, with its OWN APPROPRIATE GDN

(2) The Determiner is the grammatically ACTUAL NOUN, while the modified is a PUPPET

(3) The Gender/Definiteness/Number of the Determiner is determined by THOSE of the ORIGINAL NOUN


Bekut: a lot of/many/much; Negative: Guère

Peut: few, always NEGATIVE

Fues: a few

Trôt: Too many/too much

Negation in Lesteranian

There are two kinds of negation in Lesteranian: Absolute and Partial.

A. Absolute Negation: is marked by negating the VERB.

The basic formation of Absolute negation is adding "nèt" before the negated verb and "fos" (An adverb) after it. If it is an infinitive, combine nèt and fos, and put them before the infinitive.

For example:

Nèt compratok fos. I don't understand.

Ayatok nètfos ayaitakir wosen. I like that you don't love me.

Other formation include:

Adverbs (all usages like nèt fos): denying the whole sentence

Reflexive Verbs

Reflexive Verbs, like plaindrir, emm, are formed either by its own ("to sympathize oneself" means "complain" does not have a really nice explanation, as you can see), or by a writer. The formation is very simple:

(1) Put the reflexive pronoun (which is no different from an ordinary pronoun) into its appropriate declension according to the verb.

For example, it is "plaindrir tousen," therefore it should be, e.g. wosen plaindratok.

(2) Decline the the pronoun AGAIN in the Reflexive case: -emm:

wosenemm plaindratok.

Infinitive of Verbs

In Lesteranian, a word is conjugated in INFINITIVE form by conjugating it in ALL but the TENSE and MOOD, and add "-ir" after the conjugation. Therefore, even though an infinitive does not indicate the specific time of the action, it still indicates MODE, PERSON, GENDER etc --> of course, you can choose NOT to indicate some of any of these.

For example, for the word comprir (understand):

comprésotakir: we can know that this is an infinitive of "to have done" (é), of a third person (ot), of a woman (ak)

Impersonal Pronoun

There is only ONE impersonal pronoun in Lesteranian, whose original form with GDN suffix is: Toûs.

(1) As a subject

As the subject of the sentence, impersonal pronoun has the following usages:

A. To talk about weather:

Farricoûsenn sotoûk. It's cold. (There is no need to write "Toûs" in disjointed form, because the conjugation of "sotoûk" reveals the impersonal pronoun; ALL ADJECTIVES modifying the impersonal pronoun should be NON-RESTRICTIVE, as it should be for ALL PRONOUNS)