Syntax: Predicate

In Lesteranian, if a declined noun or adjective or anything other than a verb serves the predicate of the sentence, it has to be transmorphized into a verb.

For example:

depravatic adj. depraved

Depravaticosotok. He is depraved.

Note: if the gender and number are already indicated by other parts of the phrase, the verbal conjugation can be elided:

Depravaticosot. He is depraved. As "os" indicates that we're talking about a naturally masculine and singular entity.

Another example:

Parc f. park

Parcasâttikaigitouk? Were you at the Park?

TBC

Determiner of Amounts

In Lesteranian, the Logic of Amount determiner is:

(1) The Determiner is ITSELF a NOUN, while the modified noun is declined in the GENITIVE CASE, with its OWN APPROPRIATE GDN

(2) The Determiner is the grammatically ACTUAL NOUN, while the modified is a PUPPET

(3) The Gender/Definiteness/Number of the Determiner is determined by THOSE of the ORIGINAL NOUN

 

Bekut: a lot of/many/much; Negative: Guère

Peut: few, always NEGATIVE

Fues: a few

Trôt: Too many/too much

NOTE: Negative means that they are used in PARTIAL NEGATION, together with the Pès.

For example:

Ayatok bekutasien nouritasium. I have a lot of food.

Pès ayatok guèriasien nouritasium. I don't have much food. (I still have some, though)

Shoubenoscium fuesosce quètoscien ayatok... "The a few" books that I have...

Pès ayatok peutogien shoubenoge. I have few books.

 

These are the ONLY four Determiners of Amounts. To express amounts, there are other ways like: a cup of tea, a glass of water, a box of chocolate, the majority of the students. In these cases:

(1) the "Cup", "Box", etc., RETAIN their OWN appropriate GDN, while the modified words RETAIN theirs, too.

Bezitaz châsium. A cup fo tea.

(2) Still, the ORIGINAL NOUNS are only PUPPET NOUNS.

For example:

Çousta boîtiazennotak jukulilossium. That is a box of many kinds of chocolates. It is "-otak", in accord with "boîtaz", not "-ontok", with "jukulilosse".

NOTE: If these determiners are NOT DECLINED, they serve as adverbs with the same meaning. For example:

Chyésatok bekut. I have eaten a lot.

Case Declension Suffix for Nouns (REVISED!!!)

In Lesteranian, there is NO preposition; instead, there are a number of CASES that can serve as adjective and adverbial.

To Decline a Noun, first decline it into the GDN Form. Then, add the following suffixes according to different circumstances.

NOTE: e+a/e/o/u... => i+a/e/o/u..., e+i=>ëi, and the pronunciation of all the consonants should be preserved.

Group I. Basic Construction Cases

Nominative: (none, but disjointed from the sentence) [Subject]
Vocative: -oi [You!] (Double declension)
Accusative: -ē [Object direct]
Predicative: - ène [Predicate] (Double declension)
Dative: -ī [Object indirect]
Reflexive: -ème [Self] (Double declension)
Passive Nominative: -âl [By] 

Group II. Relative Cases

Instructive: -yīn [By]
Instrumental: -én [With (e.g. with a pen)]
Comitative: -iś [With, accompanied with]
Sociative: -oś [Along with]
Ornative: -aś [Equipped with]
Abessive I: -éz̧it [Without]
Irrelevant Case: -auve
Abessive II: -épit [Except]
Abessive III: -élit [Despite]
Genitive: -GDN (accord with "possessed")-as [of, not possessive]
Possessive: -GDN (aw/p)-âë ['s, only possessive]
Quasi-Possessive: -GDN (aw/p)- aroum ['s, seemingly possessive]
Aversive: -œr [Avoiding, in fear of]
Causal: -(s)ket [Because of]
Causal-Final: -(s)kat [For]
Agent: -ur [For]
Thematic: -ube [About]
Benefactive: -(s)kout [For the benefit of]
Distributive: -iś [Per]

Group III. State Cases

Comparative: -âr [Than]
Equative: -as [Like]
Equivalent: -aŝ [i.e.]
Formal: -af [As]
Exessive: -adô [From being as]
Translative: -afâr [(turn) Into]
Identical: -aĉ [Being]

Group IV. Locative Cases

Locative: -âtt [General location/at...]
Adessive: -îb [Next to]
Apudessive I: -ûs [Around/About]
Apudessive II: -ufôs [Before]
Apudessive III: -usçôs [After]
Pertingent: -usûs [Touching]
Inessive I: -sîtt [In]
Inessive II: -sîst [Inside] 
Inessive III: -sîdt [In midst of]
Intrative: -etre [Between]
Subessive I: -ôsous [Under]
Subessive II: -ôter [Below]
Superessive I: -ôtus [On]
Superessive II: -ôstus [Above]
Supressive III: -ôpras [Over]
Supressive IV: -ôtcas [on the surface of]
Revertive: -îns [Against]

Group V. Temporal Cases

Temporal: -øtt [General, at/in/on...]
Antessive: -øfôs [Before]
Apudessive I Temporal: -øs [Around/About]
Apudessive III Temporal: -øsçôs [After]
Initiative Temporal: -ødôs [Since/From]
Terminative: -ørfe [Until/To]
Intrative Temporal: -itre [Between]
Distributive: -øss [per/each]

Group VI. Motion Cases

Initiative: -dôs [General/From...]
Ablative: -dôme [Away from]
Delative: -dôcta [From the surface/top of]
Elative: -dôhîr [Out of]
Lative: -ârte [General/To...]
Allative: -ârtt [To]
Illative: -sârte [Into]
Orientative: -ârfe [Towards]
Sublative: -utre [Onto]
Terminative -ârtîs [As far as/Until]
Perlative: -troût [Through]
Prosecutive: -onst [Along]
Vialis: -îvre [Via]

End of all the Cases

Verb Conjugation of Lesteranian

In Lesteranian, EVERY verb ends with "-ir" or "-ïr" in its original form.

To conjugate a verb, first ELIMINATE this "-ir" or "-ïr".

Than, add after the verb root a sequence of INDICATORS.

(1) Indicator of Mood: (if there is no vowel in front of this Indicator, add an "i" before it, except for Indicative)

Indicative: None (I am Lester)
Quasi-Indicative: l (Hah, I am Jester)

Interrogative: k (Are you Lester?)
Quasi-Interrogative: g (Am I Lester? [Of course!])

Imperative: t (Come here!)
Quasi-Imperative: d (Please, come here...)

Exclamative-Declarative: f (Yes, I am Lester/ I am Lester!!!)
Quasi-Exclamative-Declarative: v (You are a bitch!!!) 

Conditional: m (If...., I would be Lester)
Quasi-Conditional: n (If I were Lester...)

Subjunctive: ş (It is awesome that you would come)
Quasi-Subjunctive: z̧ (That he should come!)

Narrative: p (One day, Lester fell in love with ... /In 1789, the people of Paris stormed the fortress of Bastille)
Quasi-Narrative: b (Once upon a time, there is a man called Lester)

(2) Indicator of Mode: (if there is no consonant in front of this Indicator, add an "s" before it, except for simple)

Simple: None (only for present, future, and future in the past)
Perfect: é (Present: have done; Past: did; ...)
Imperfect: ai (only for the past)
Over-Perfect: a (over than perfect)
Continuous: an (be doing)
Continuous perfect: in (have been doing)

(3) Tense: (if there is no vowel in front of this Indicator, add the part in the parenthesis before it, except for present)

Present: None
Past: (ou)ĝ
Future: (ô)ś
Future in the Past: (u)ŝ

(4) Person (add "s" if without a consonant before)

I Person: at (I), āt (We), ēt (editorial/royal we)
II Person: èt (You), īt (You plural), ūt (vous en français)
III Person: ot (singualar), ōt (plural)

(5) Gender

oķ: Masculine (all)
aķ: Feminine (all)
ouķ: Neuter personal (all)
uķ: Neuter impersonal

(6) Participles

Present Participle:
(1) Free form (doing): eliminate the tense, add -āt
(2) Verb form (be doing): the continuos/perfect continuos mode

Past Participle
(1) Free form (done, being done, having been done): eliminate the tense, choose correct mode, add -icos, "os" as GDN in accord with the subject;
(2) Verb form: same as (1) yet keep the tense

(7) Courtesy: -œt

End of the conjugation rule.

(8) Infinitive

-ir: Ordinary

-oir: complimentary

Conjunction

A. Special pronoun "Dast"

Dast is a special pronoun; it has NO gender or number or definiteness at all, not even "impersonal" or so. Therefore, it does NOT have a GDN suffix.

Dast is used to replace A WHOLE SENTENCE. To nominate this sentence, one can put a "làs" at the end of the sentence:

Dast tosen ayatok (làs). That I love you.

When Dast is referring to a sentence, it has NO OTHER MEANING; it means nothing but the sentence itself. It doesn't have a demonstrative meaning, for example, as Çous.

Dast can be declined in various cases. The declension of Dast is the way of expressing CONJUNCTION in Lesteranian. Note that in NO WAY can Dast replace RELATIVE PRONOUNS, because it stands grammatically for a WHOLE SENTENCE!!!

Note: When added a suffix that begins NOT with a vowel letter, the t is omitted.

B. Nominal Conjunctions

Nominal conjunctions are formed by DECLINING "Dast" into various appropriate cases as you will decline a NOUN. Technically, Dast can be declined in many ways, yet the following are the most common/standard ones:

Time

Dastøtt: When
Dastøfôs: Before
Dastøsçôs: After
Dastødôs: Since
Dastørfe: Until

Condition/Hypothesis

Dastén: When
Dastien: If
Daspéss: Unless

Concessions

Dastélit: Although
Dastîns: Even if
Dastépit: Except that

Reason

Dasket: Because
Dastoûr: For (between So that and Because)
Dastâf: As (Seeing that)

Result
Daskétt: So that

Purpose
Daskat: So that
Dasteûr: In the fear that

Comparison
Dastâre: than (+ clause)
Dastâsse: As (+clause)

C. Special Conjunctions

D. Grammatical Conjunctions

GDN Suffix of Nouns

 

Noun suffixes of Lesteranian: GDN (Gender-Definiteness-Number)

* Technical only: Singular Derivative Gender.

 

 

 

Singular

Plural

 

Gender

Natural

Logical

Derivative

Natural

Logical

Derivative

Definite

M

-os

-eus

(-is)

-osce

-eusce

-isce

F

-as

-és

(-ès)

-asce

-ésce

-èsce

N(P/I)

-ous/-oûs

/

(-us)

-ousce

-øsce

-usce

Indefinite

M

-oz

-euz

(-iz)

-oge

-euge

-ige

F

-az

-éz

(-èz)

-age

-ége

-ège

N

-ouz

/

(-uz)

-ouge

-øge

-uge

Partitive

M

-ose

-euse

(-ise)

-osse

-eusse

-isse

F

-ase

-ése

(-èse)

-asse

-ésse

-èsse

N

-ouse

/

(-use)

-ousse

-øsse

-usse

 Explanations:

(1) Genders

Natural masculine, feminine, neuter: self evident. Neuter: Personal and Impersonal.

Logical genders: the antithesis of A has the logical gender of A's opposite gender. For example, "Queen" as King's wife is a logical feminine gender, while "Queen's husband" is a logical masculine gender.

Derivative genders: used for groups of logical-gender objects/persons.

(2) Definiteness

Definite: "the"

Indefinite: "a/an", "des" en français

Partitive: a. Uncountable: a certain amount, some (singular); some kinds of (plural) --> 3 kinds of: 3 + partitive; b. Countable: 1 of (singular); some of (plural) --> 3 of: 3+ partitive;

(3) Number

Time in Lesteranian

(1) Time

Second: second (m.)

Minute: fene (f.)

Hour: heure (f.) Half-Hour: demieure (f.)

The usages are the same to French.

E.g. 2:58 PM: Ys heuriage et .... feniage.

Morning: Morgenn (m.) 06:00-09:00

Morning: Shorgenn (m.) o9:00-12:00

Noon: Mide (f.) 12:00 p.m.

Afternoon: Shargenn (m.) 12:00-05:00 p.m.

Evening: Abend (m.) 05:00-09:00 p.m.

Night: Nuite (f.) 09:00-06:00

Midnight: Minuite (f.) 12:00 a.m.

(2) Days of the Week

Day: cheon (m.)

Week: semain (m.)

Monday: Yâtain (m., all)

Tuesday: Ytain

Wednesday: Senntain

Thursday: Sétain

Friday: Moutain

Saturday: Lotain

Sunday: Limmtain

(3) Month

Date: rize (f.)

Month: mois (m.)

January: Neurois m.

February: Netherois m.

March: Arborois m.

April: Giovanois m.

May: Lesteroise f.

June: Sailoise f.

July: Sçyelois m.

August: Volois m.

September:  Villois m.

October: Vanôllois n.

November: Calvinois m.

December: Agriçois m.

(4) Year

Year: anne (f.)

Century: Byéanne (f.)

Millennium: Tsyéanne (f.)

Usages same to Chinese.

2010: Annias Ys-Limm-Yât-Limm.

 

Usage of Time in Sentences:

(1) At this time, on/in this day... : Temporal Case:

On this Monday: Cicos Yâtainosøtt
In this May: Cicas Lesteroisiøtt

(2) Every/Each: Distributive Temporal Case

Each Monday: Yâtainospør
Each May: Lesteroisepør

(3) Every word of time (week, month, etc.) can only be NOUN, not ADVERB or ADJECTIVE.

For example: It's Monday --> Çous Yâtainozenn sotouk. (It's A Monday).

Infinitive of Verbs

In Lesteranian, a word is conjugated in INFINITIVE form by conjugating it in ALL but the TENSE and MOOD, and add "-ir" after the conjugation. Therefore, even though an infinitive does not indicate the specific time of the action, it still indicates MODE, PERSON, GENDER etc --> of course, you can choose NOT to indicate some of any of these.

For example, for the word comprir (understand):

comprésotakir: we can know that this is an infinitive of "to have done" (é), of a third person (ot), of a woman (ak)

The usages of infinitive is DIFFERENT from that of English, and very SIMILAR to that of French.

(1) It is actually a noun, WITHOUT GENDER: English equivalent as "doing". In this usage, it should be DECLINED, unless in case of an impersonal pronoun.

For example:

Aysatok changeuhiren/changeuhatokiren. I love singing/that I sing.

Aysatok changeuhaitakiren. I love that you sing.

Difficilicoûsenn çousenta comprir sotoûk. It is difficult to understand this.

Difficilicoûsenn (wospour) çousenta compratokir sotoûk. It is difficult for me to understand this ("for me" is not necessary).

(2) Compliment of an Adjective/Noun, etc. In this case, the INFINITIVE should be ended NOT with the "-ir", but with the complimentary ending: -oir. (Notice to change c into ç and g into gh, etc, to preserve the pronunciation)

Expressions like: This is difficult to understand/for me to understand. There is some work to do.

Çousta difficilicousenn comproir/compratokoir sotoûk. Toûsâtt travauxosien zouloir avosotoûk.

Negation in Lesteranian

There are two kinds of negation in Lesteranian: Absolute and Partial.

A. Absolute Negation: is marked by negating the VERB.

The basic formation of Absolute negation is adding "nèt" before the negated verb and "fos" (An adverb) after it. If it is an infinitive, combine nèt and fos, and put them before the infinitive.

For example:

Nèt compratok fos. I don't understand.

Ayatok nètfos ayaitakir wosen. I like that you don't love me.

Other formation include:

Adverbs (all usages like nèt fos): denying the whole sentence

(1) No longer (Adverb): nèt zaïts

(2) Never (past) (Adverb): nèt çonglais

(3) Never (future) (Adverb) nèt juês

Pronouns: denying the whole sentence

(4) Noting (Pronoun): rien(m.)+WITHOUT GDN (BUT declined appropriately), nèt+Verb

(5) Nobody (Pronoun) : personne (f.)+WITHOUT GDN (BUT declined appropriate), nèt+ Verb

For example: Nèt compratok rienen. I understand nothing. Personne nèt comprotouk wosen. No one understands me.

Adjectives: denying nouns/pronouns

(6) None of/no...: aukic+GDN Suffix in accord with the modified+Declension in accord with the modified, nèt+Verb

For example: Toûsâtt nèt avosotoûk aukicasien neigiasien.

B. Partial Negation

Partial negation means that the VERB is only partially negated; it did not happen in the sense of the sentence, yet it happens in another way. For example:

I didn't eat a hamburger. I eat a pizza. The action"eat" does happen, yet not in the way of "eat a hamburger."

The basic formation of partial negation is adding "pès...fés" before and after the verb. By itself, it means that the sentence is partially denied in a not specific way. For example:

Toûsâtt pès avosotoûk fés neigiasien. There isn't snow. We are sure that there is something else by the meaning of the speaker. If the speaker says: Toûsâtt nèt avosotoûk aukicasien neigiasien or Toûsâtt nèt avosotoûk fos neigiasien, we can know that, even though there is something logically, the speaker doesn't care about that.

Pès can also go with the following combinations to specify what is being partially denied:

(1) Adjective: partial negation of a noun/nouns:

Pès+augic+GDN (no declension)

For example: Toûsâtt pès avosotoûk aukicasien neigiasien; avosotoûk leauxasien. There is no snow. There is water.

(2) Pronoun: partial negation of the verb:

Pès+rienne, Pès+person (all without GDN, but declined):

Pès désatok rienen. I desire nothing. (I love something, hate something, for example.)

(3) Adverbs

Pès+verb+dînt: only.

For example: Pès désatok neigiasien. Pès tasien ayatok dînt.

Pès+nînt: hardly

For example: Pès tasien ayatok nînt.

(4) Determiner of Amount

Pès+guère, Pès+fues --> same as the rule of ordinary determiner of amounts

 

NOTE: All the above negations can be multiple, in which the negating word other than pès/nèt; for example: Pès ayatok neigiasen pès shoubeniosen. I love neither snow nor book.

(3) Double Negation

Double negation is a way to emphasize. In Lesteranian, Double Negation means that there is a nèt+pès or pès+pès (because by denying for the second time, there is something else to say). In this way, nèt+pès=nepès, pès+pès=peppès. For the other part, fos+fés=vôs, fés+fés=vés. For example:

Nèt ayatok fos tosen. I don't love you.

“Nèt pès ayatok fos fés tosen." ==> Nepès ayatok vôs tosen.

Pès ayatok fés tosen. I don't love you. (I might hate you...)

Pèppès ayatok vés tosen. There is a nuance between this and the previous one. The previous one means that it's not the case that I don't love you. The later's that it's not the case that I don't love you but I hate you/desire you... etc. This is, of course, non-sense...

Reflexive Verbs

Reflexive Verbs, like plaindrir, emm, are formed either by its own ("to sympathize oneself" means "complain" does not have a really nice explanation, as you can see), or by a writer. The formation is very simple:

(1) Put the reflexive pronoun (which is no different from an ordinary pronoun) into its appropriate declension according to the verb.

For example, it is "plaindrir tousen," therefore it should be, e.g. wosen plaindratok.

(2) Decline the the pronoun AGAIN in the Reflexive case: -emm:

wosenemm plaindratok.

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